Chem 130 Environmental Chemistry

Prof. David E. Henderson

Office Clement 129

E-mail David.Henderson

Phone 297-2514

Note- Communication with professor is best accomplished by e-mail. Each student is expected to obtain an e-mail account for receiving out of class information, etc. Under no circumstances should you phone me at home.

Office Hours M and W 1:15-4:00

Texts - Environmental Chemistry, Colin Baird, Freeman, 1998

Teaching Assistant - - TA sessions will be scheduled weekly.

Course Objectives

1. Provide each student with an experience of the impact of urban population centers and human activities on the environment.

2. Promote an understanding of the interconnected nature of all environmental systems.

3. Provide a balanced understanding of both the costs and benefits of synthetic chemicals and the similar tradeoffs for Anatural@ substances (chemicals).

4. Provide students with skills needed to be life long learners in environmental sciences.

5. Provide opportunities for students to engage in a service learning project.

6. Help students develop the ability to write about and discuss environmental issues.

Course Community Service Project

Each student will work individually or in groups of up to 3 students. Each group, when formed, must submit a written list of group members and a proposal for the course project for the group by October 5 (One submission per group).

Each group will volunteer 15-40 hours during the semester at a school, local business, government agency, or other appropriate organization on a project related to some environmental issue. Each student will keep a detailed, ?double entry" journal containing details of their work. The journal will be kept in a bound composition or laboratory notebook. The left hand pages will be used to maintain a log of the time spent on the project and what specifically was done during the time. The right hand pages will be used to record observations and reflections on the service activities and to note connections between the activities and material in the course and in the text. It will also be used to record questions to be brought to class for discussion. Each week, each group present a brief summary of their week’s work and any questions it has raised to the class at the beginning of the Thursday class hour. The group will submit a final report on their service project suitable for a general audience.

Evaluation of Projects- Evaluation will be based on the following:

Final report

Weekly class reports

Evaluation of supervisor or professor

Journal entries

Time devoted to project

Attendance Policy - As a student in this course, you have paid a considerable amount of money for the experience. It is assumed that you will want to make the most of your investment. Thus, attendance at all class sessions is expected. However, as an adult, you are responsible for your time, so attendance will not be recorded directly. You are fully responsible for all of the information provide during the class, both content related and that pertinent to class assignments. Some classes will include quizzes or other graded activities. Several classes will be used for laboratory activities. There will be no makeups of these activities for any reason. In case of significant mitigating circumstances, students who miss these activities will have their absence excused based on a written note from the Dean of Students.

Homework Policy - Homework assignments are due at the beginning of class on the assigned day. No late papers will be graded unless written permission ( e-mail preferred) has been granted in advance for an extension of the deadline. Requests for extensions must include a reason and the date when completion can be expected. We will normally have covered the material in class prior to the due date. If you are having a hard time with the material, ask questions in class, at the TA session, by e mail, or meet with the professor prior to the due date.

Evaluation

1. Exams 40%

2. Quizzes, and classroom activities and labs 15%

3. Homework assignments 20%

4. Service Project 25%

Just for Fun – There are a number of novels that address issues of the environment. You may replace any one Homework assignment by reading a novel that includes an environmental issue and writing a 3-4 page essay describing the issue in the novel, the way the author perceives the issue and your opinion of the accuracy or inaccuracy of the science presented. Eg. Drowning Towers is a SF novel set in a world where Global Warming has raised sea levels by 50-60 meters. Dust is a rather dark novel set in a world where the ecosystem is out of balance.

Detailed Syllabus

I. 9-5 Introduction to Environmental Chemistry - Read Text Chapter 1

A. Introduction to Gaia- How the World Works

1.Carbon Cycle and Plate Tectonics

2.Weather in the Atmosphere and Hydrosphere

B. Pollution

Problem 1 - Stratospheric Ozone Depletion - The Sky is Falling

II. 9/7 Pollution and the Stratosphere – Read Text Chapter 2 pp 15-36, Henderson Section I, and text AP 1

Structure of the Atmosphere

Models of Molecules – model kit activity

Light and Energy – Rainbow glasses activity

Units of concentration - moles

III. 9/12 Rates of Reactions and factors that effect them – Read Chapter 2 pp 36-65, Henderson Section II (focus on kinetics part)

Rate laws

Mechanisms

Catalysts

Ozone destruction reactions

Lab exercise 1 - Ozone monitoring – 1 week - Each pair of students responsible for one day, 8:00 AM and 4:00 PM measurements in duplicate. See the lab handout for detailed instructions.

IV. 9/14 Ozone holes and how to plug them – Read Chapter 2 pp 65-end

History of CFC’s

Regulation of CFC’s

What can we learn from the process?

What does the future hold?

Review and Reflection - Each student should find one recent literature article (Science, Science News, Nature, Discover, or other science related publication) on the problem under consideration and prepare a brief summary of the major points in the article. Bring these summaries and a copy of the article to class and be prepared to discuss what you have found.

Homework Assignment 1 – Models

Problem 2 - Urban Ozone, Photochemical Smog and other Ground Level Air Pollution – The Rains in Maine are Dissolving the Drain

V. 9/19 Ideal Gas Law text Box 3-1, Henderson Section III

A. Gas laws and the weather

B. Ideal gas law and calculations involving concentration - ppmv

C. Discussion of Community service projects

D. Smog – Read text Ch 3, pp. 85-101

 

VI. 9/21 Acid Base Lab- Read Henderson Section V

Bring a commercial liquid substance to class for testing, beverages, cleaning products, etc.

Homework Assignment 2- Gas Laws

VII. 9/26 Acid Rain – Read text Ch 3, pp- 101-112

VIII. 9/28 Other forms of pollution Read Text Chapter 3 pp. 112-130, 154-end

Particulates

Indoor Air Pollution

Sick Buildings

Smog Concluded - Read Text Chapter 3 pp. 130-154

Detailed mechanisms of Chemistry of Troposphere

Political, economic and regulatory issues

 

 

Problem 3 -Global Warming- The Greenhouse Effect -Heat with Coal – Heats you Twice

IVI. 10/3 Global Warming - Read Text Chapter 4, pp 173-209

A. Carbon cycle

1. Fossil fuels

2. Carbon sequestration

a. Plants

b. Oceans

B. IR Spectra of gases demonstration lab

VII. 10/5 Climate models - Predictions of your future Chapter 4 pp 209-end, Chapter 5 223-226

GCM=s

Coupling of ocean and atmosphere

Effects of Global Warming

What can be done?

Project Proposals Due

TRINITY DAYS Field trip - CRRA

All students must wear closed toe shoes and long pants for this trip

1. Bus Leaves at 2:15 – Don’t be Late

2. Tour CRRA - Resource Recovery Facility

3. Return by 4:15

VIIII. 10/12 Energy – Fossil fuels – Chapter 5, pp. 226-242, Henderson Section VII

A. More Modeling exercises - combustion reactions

1. Bond energies and energy yields

2. Hydrogen content

B. Thermodynamics

B. Hess’s Law and heats of formation

IXII. 10/17 Energy Choices and Energy Alternatives, Ready Chapter 5, pp 242-end

A. Alternate Energy Sources

1.Solar

2.Wind

3.Geothermal

4.Hydroelectric

5.Nuclear

B. Choices for transportation

1. Electric Cars

2. Hybrid Cars

3. Hydrogen fuel and fuel cells

4. Mass Transit

5. Urbanization

C. Energy Conservation

Heating

Lighting

Industrial Processes

Cogeneration

Homework Assignment 3- Balancing Reactions and Stoichiometry

XII. 10/19 International Perspective - The Koyota Treaty

Review and Reflection - Each student should find one recent literature article (Science, Science News, Nature, Discover, or other science related publication) on the problem under consideration and prepare a brief summary of the major points in the article. Bring these summaries an a copy of the article to class and be prepared to discuss what you have found.

Project Reports – Each group will present a brief update on their project. What has been done? What questions do you have about the material? How does it relate to what we are discussing in class?

XI. 10/24 Mid Term Exam - This will cover all material on problems 1-3 and the background chemistry.

Problem 4- Toxic Substances Where Have All The Froggies Gone?

 

XII. 10/26 Toxic Organic Chemicals and Risk assessment - Read Text 313-320 Henderson Section VIII.

A. Risks - what should we worry about

A.Risk exercise- risk and choices.

C. Values in Risk Analysis

D. Public Policy Choices and Risk

Project Reports – Each group will present a brief update on their project. What has been done? What questions do you have about the material? How does it relate to what we are discussing in class?

XIII 10/31 Toxic Organic Chemicals Read Text Chapter 6

A. DDT - the Aperfect@ pesticide

B. Alternative pesticides

C. Other agricultural chemicals

D. Alternatives

1. Integrated Pest Management

2. Genetic Engineering

E. Problems with alternatives

XIV. 11/2 Toxic Organic Chemicals Continued

A. PCB=s

B. PAH=s

C. Toxic Natural Chemicals

1.Aflatoxin

2.Botulinum

D. Estrogen mimics - the latest scare (is Rubber Ducky safe?)

Project Reports – Each group will present a brief update on their project. What has been done? What questions do you have about the material? How does it relate to what we are discussing in class?

Homework Assignment 4 – Units

XVIII. 11/7 Toxic Inorganic Chemicals - Read Text Chapter 7

A.History of Global lead pollution

B.Toxic effects of lead

C. Regulation of Lead - An Environmental Success Story

Obtain a water sample bottle before you leave for vacation. Read cautions and instructions carefully.

Problem 5- Pure Water for Drinking, Agriculture, and Industry – Water, Water Everywhere, but Do You Dare to Drink?

 

XV. 11/9 Chemistry of Natural Waters - Read Chapter 8

C. Oxygen

D. Carbonate Equilibrium

E. Other elements

F. Anaerobic and Aerobic conditions - BOD – COD

Project Reports – Each group will present a brief update on their project. What has been done? What questions do you have about the material? How does it relate to what we are discussing in class?

XVI. 11/14 Oxidation-Reduction and Acid Base Chemistry - Read Henderson IX

A. Acid-Base Chemistry revisited

B. Evolution of pE in natural water and biochemical consequences

Homework Assignment 5 – Literature Paper Estrogen mimics

XVIII. 11/16 Providing Fresh Water - Contamination and purification - Read Text Chapter 9

B. Water Pollution and Water Treatment

C. Chlorine - good guy/bad guy

D. Sewage Treatment

Project Reports – Each group will present a brief update on their project. What has been done? What questions do you have about the material? How does it relate to what we are discussing in class?

 

Problem 6 - Waste Disposal and the Soil – In them Old Brownfields Back Home

XVIII.11/21 Soil Pollution - Read Text Chapter 10

A. Urban Lead pollution - Gasoline and paint pollution

1.Bioremediation

B. Organic Pollution in Soils - The Bus Barn problem

B. Clay minerals as ion exchange media

C. Nutrients in Soil

D. Green Chemistry

Homework Assignment 6 – Acid Base Chemistry

 

XIXIII. 11/28 Lab exercise - Lead analysis by ICP Spectrophotometry -

A. Samples of drinking water from your home or dorm

Homework Assignment 7 – CRRA Recycling paper

XX. 11/30 Recycling

A. Landfills and Waste Disposal

B. Source Reduction

C. Recycling

Project Reports – Each group will present a brief update on their project. What has been done? What questions do you have about the material? How does it relate to what we are discussing in class?

 

Homework Assignment 7 - Redox

XXV. 12/5 Review and Reflection - Each student should find one recent literature article (Science, Science News, Nature, Discover, or other science related publication) on the problems under consideration and prepare a brief summary of the major points in the article. Bring these summaries an a copy of the article to class and be prepared to discuss what you have found.

XXI. 5/7 Hour Exam 2 - This exam will cover material for Problems 4-6

 

FINAL EXAM –9:00 Dec. 13. Refreshments will be served. The Final Exam will consist of oral presentations by each group on their Community service project. Each student should prepare about 5 minutes of material on their topic. We will discuss the format of this session before the end of classes.

 

 

Homework Assignments

Assignment 1- Models

1. Draw a detailed structural formula for 3-ethylheptane. Draw a simple bond diagram for the same molecule.

2. Draw a structural formula for 1,1,2-trichlorobutane

3. Name the following molecules:

 

4. Write structural formulas for Freon 21 and Freon 22.

5. Deduce the code numbers for the following HCFC=s: CH3CFCl2 , CH3CF2Cl

Assignment 2- Gas Laws

1. Calculate the moles of gas/liter (n/V) at 1 atm and 298 K. Recalculate the value at high altitude where the pressure is reduced to 0.60 atm. Draw a sketch in which you depict gas molecules as dots which depict the effects you have calculated for these two pressures.

2. The maximum allowable ozone concentration in air is 100 ppb. Calculate the number of ozone molecules per cm3 and the micrograms of ozone per m3 at this concentration (STP).

3. An analysis indicates that the molarity of ozone in an air sample ( at STP) is 2x10-9 M/l. Calculate the ppb ozone.

 

Assignment 3- Balancing reactions and Stoichiometry

1. For each of the fuels below, write a balanced chemical equation for the complete combustion reaction. Calculate the amount of carbon dioxide produced by the combustion of 100 gm each fuel.

ethanol

methane

 

2. Calculate the heat produced when one mole of each fuel in problem 2 above is burned using the method of bond energies. Calculate the amount of heat produced when 100 gm. of each of these fuels is burned.

3. Calculate the weight of carbon dioxide produced by the combustion 100 gm of the two fuels in problem

Assignment 4- Units - ppm, ppb, molarity

1. The maximum concentration of Pb in drinking water is 50 ppb. How many ppm is this? Convert this to micrograms/liter and to moles/liter.

2. Calculate the molecular weight of TCDD (dioxin). If a fish is found to have 20 ppb TCDD, what is the concentration in micrograms/kg of fish? What is the concentration of dioxin in the fish in moles/kg. (Note - moles per liter would be hard to calculate since we don=t know the density of the fish and normally buy fish by weight rather than volume)

3. An air sample contains 3 ppm carbon monoxide. Calculate the weight of CO in 1 liter of air.

 

 

 

Assignment 5- Literature Paper

Find two articles in the literature relevant to one of the topics below. Read the articles and write a 200 word summary of each. Then write a letter to the editor or an Op-Ed piece to one of the publications you read stating your own opinion on the topic. Letters are limited to 600 words. Submit copies of the articles, your summaries, and your essay. Each essay should clearly detail and defend some point relevant to the article or the problem addressed by the article.

Topics:

1. Agricultural chemicals as estrogen mimics

2. Chemicals in plastics as estrogen mimics ( either phthlates or phenols i.e. bis-phenol A)

Assignment 6 - Acid Base

1. The pH of CO2 saturated water, given the present atmospheric CO2 concentration of about 350 ppm, is 5.6. Before the start of extensive use of fossil fuel, the atmospheric CO2 was only 280 ppm. Within your lifetime, the CO2 is expected to reach at least 600 ppm. Calculate the pH of natural rainwater at 15 deg C at 280 and 600 ppm CO2. Hint - See Problem 3-35 on p 152.

2. Determine the ratio of acid and conjugate base in a solution of nitrous acid (HNO2) at pH 4.00.

K = 4.5x10-4 (Hint - See discussion on p 152 for a similar weak acid)

3. Fe3+ in its hydrated form behaves like a weak acid with a K=1.7x10-5. What is the pH of a solution of 0.010 M Fe3+.

4. Phosphoric acid is a triprotic acid and has 3 acid dissociation constants. Determine the ratio of acid to conjugate base for phosphate in natural waters having pH values of 5.6, 7.0, and 8.2.

K1 = 6.9x10-3 K2= 6.1x10-8 K3= 4.8x10-13 Hint: There are only two predominate species at any pH so the other forms of the acid can be ignored.

Assignment 7 - Essay on Resource use

Based on the Field trip to CRRA, write a short essay on one of the following topics- limit 3 pages.

1. Suggest three things that you could do in your normal, on campus activities to decrease the waste stream? Are you willing to do them on an ongoing basis? In what way are they inconvenient? What could be done to make these actions easier for you?

2. Suggest three possible environmental costs of recycling. Explain these costs and whether they are primary energy related or pollution related. What could be done to minimize these costs? If possible, estimate the magnitude of the costs relative to the savings also associated with this activity.

3. Trash to energy - is it a good or bad idea? Examine the pros and cons of this technology. What alternatives are possible? State and defend a position on the issue assuming that such a plant is scheduled for construction in your hometown to process your trash.

 

Assignment 8- Redox

1. Determine the oxidation states of the atoms involved in the reaction in photosynthesis

CO2 + H2O + sunlight ====> CH2O + 0.5 O2

2. Determine the oxidation state of carbon in CH4, CH3OH, H2CO, and HCOOH

3. Determine the oxidation state of the chlorine atom in the chemicals used for water purification, Cl2, HOCl, and ClO2-