Tuesdays, 2.30-4.30 pm
This topic has received a great deal of attention recently, and affords students the opportunity to consider the problems associated with it from a number of angles. Agriculture remained throughout antiquity the basic mode of subsistence for the vast majority of the population, and one of the chief bases (trade was certainly another) on which urban agglomerations existed. At the same time, agricultural activities and the ideological structures built on them served as powerful determinants of the structure of Greek society; one need consider only the line from Plato's Laws and Xenophon's Oikonomikos to Victor Davis Hanson's The Other Greeks. The range of evidence for agriculture is extraordinary, both in amount and type: from literature, like the books just mentioned, through epigraphy (especially, but not exclusively, land-leases and horoi) and papyri (mainly, but not exclusively, from Egypt) to art (depictions on vases of agricultural activities and landscapes) and archaeology (especially, but not exclusively, the results of survey work, like that of Karl Lohmann at Atene in Attika; Nicholas Cahill's Household and City Organization at Olynthus offers a compelling treatment of some intersections of agriculture and urban life). Topics related to agricultural activity include crops and mode of production; storage, distribution, and sale; the place of agriculture in the economy; import vs. autarcheia; the ideology of farming; long-distance trade in agricultural commodities; the content and purpose of agricultural manuals; the value of ethnoarchaeological approaches. Thus a seminar on agriculture affords students a chance to look at whatever kind of evidence is most interesting in a coordinated investigation of a central topic in Greek history. I would hope that the breadth of the topic would feed into dissertation work planned by some students; in any case, some familiarity with the issues involved in Greek agriculture is valuable to anyone working in any area of Greek antiquity
Each week (except December 11) one or two students will be responsible for leading our discussion through the readings and issues of the topic of the day ("presenters"). Everyone should make every effort to read all of the basic readings listed under each topic; the presenters should also have a look at some of the material listed in the additional bibliography which may be of use in leading discussion.
Because the size of the class may create some pressure for readings, I will make every effort to produce xeroxes for everyone of the chief written source material (short passages from authors, inscriptions, papyri, etc., marked below as HO for "hand-out"). For some of the readings length will preclude making xeroxes for everyone; in these cases I will try to have one or two xeroxes available in the Seminar Room which you can treat as reserve readings (marked below as SR for "seminar room reserve"). Finally, some reading will simply have to be done "off the shelf" in the Blegen; in these cases, I rely on everyone's conscientiousness about putting cards in to mark books they are using (and why not indicate on the card, in addition to where you are sitting and who you are, "Gary's seminar" so that your compeers know that another student in the seminar is reading the book?).
I recognize that everyone in this course is extremely busy with other obligations -- not everyone will have time every week to read every word of the basic readings, let alone of the additional bibliography (including me). I expect only a good-faith effort to do as much as you can, and to participate in class from the material you have had a chance to read.
Who We Are
There follow two lists of members of the class, divided (nothing invidious meant here) into full participants and auditors, and me. You can email people by clicking on their names; I have also included an email link for the students acting as presenters at each meeting below. For myself I include both an email link and a link to my web page back at Trinity College in Hartford. Connecticut, in case you want to know more about me, and I have provided a very brief statement of reseach interests. If you would like to include such a statement about yourself, please send me a brief notice and I will add it by your name.
Full participants: Tim Brelinski, Ari Bryen, Kirsten Day, Amy Dill, Sarah James, Michael Laughy, Sean Lake, Eph Lytle, Dimitri Nakassis, Lauri Reitzammer, and Christopher Trinacty.
Auditors: Demi Andrianou, Phil Saperstein, and Georgia Tsouvala.
Your Host: Gary Reger. I wrote a book a few years ago on the economy of Delos in the Hellenistic period. My research focuses on economic history, especially in the Hellenistic period, and epigraphy. I work as the house epigrapher for The HACIMUSALAR Project. A Multidisciplinary Archaeological Project in Southwestern Turkey. You can get to my webpage by clicking here.
Schedule of Classes
December 2, 2003. Organizational meeting
December 11, 2003. 2-5, meet in Wiener Lab: Note that this meeting is a Thursday
Georgina Tsartsidou on the use of phytoliths as markers of vegetation change over time, irrigation, etc., with a more detailed discussion of their use to identify uses of areas of a site; Rozaliou Christidou on the analysis of stone and bone tools to determine use; Thanos Webb on sexing and aging animal bones and the implications of domestication; Dushka Urem-Kotsou on determining the uses of rooms and spaces on the basis of pottery finds; Sherri Fox on reading changes in health and disease with the introduction of agriculture and animal domestication; and Kirsi Lorentz on bi-archaeology, diet, and the spread of agriculture.
January 20, 2004. Wine: Sean Lake
Wine, fermented from the juice of Vitis sylvestris by the action of the yeast Saccharomyces, which occurs naturally on the skins of grapes, is one of the three legs of the "Mediterranean triad" (the others being olives and grain). Consumption of wine marked civilized beings, and the use of wine was deeply embedded in Greek social practices (see, for example, Pauline Schmitt-Pantel, La cité au banquet [Rome 1992] passim). The vine was grown everywhere. Its cultivation formed a central topic in Greek agriculture (for example, five books of the Geoponica are devoted to grape culture; the list of references to vines in Theophrastos' Historia plantarum and De causis plantarum is far too long to record here, or for us to try to read -- we might as well just read the whole books) and the virtues and deficiencies of wines produced in different regions were a standard topic of erudite conversation (see the extended discussion of types of wines in Athenaios' Deipnosophistai I 25a-34e. It is impossible, in the course of a single seminar meeting, to cover systematically the entire range of information about the cultivation of the vine, the transformation of the juice into wine, and the storage and transportation of the end product. (A good overview can now be obtained from J.-P. Brun's new book, listed below.) We will hit some highlights here, with very selective readings. I have not tried to include all the many references to viticulture in the agricultural writers.
For a general introduction, see now: Jean-Pierre Brun, Le vin et l'huile dans la Méditerranée antique. Viticulture, oléiculture et procédés de fabrication (Paris 2003) 25-49 (on the strictly "agricultural" aspects of viticulture; 49-83 on the process of making wine; 84-121 on transportation, storage, consumption, etc.). There are others, for example the pages on the Classical and Hellenistic periods in Robert I. Curtis, Ancient Food Technology (Leiden 2001).
Aristophanes, Peace 565-580, for praise of wine.
We cannot read all the agricultural writers on viticulture (most of whom are of course Roman anyway, but the Geoponica devotes five books, IV-VIII, to the topic, excerpting predecessors); but perhaps it will suffice as introduction to read Plin., Nat. hist. 17.164-174 on training vines.
The papyri from Egypt preserve a mass of material about viticulture. We will consider (all HO):
P. Cair. Zen. II 59159, a promise to deliver vines for planting;
P. Cair. Zen. IV 59736, record of delivery of vines;
P. Zen. Pestm. 52 (PSA Athen. 4), on fencing to protect a vineyard;
P. Col. IV 76, a contract for delivery of vine-props;
P. Cair. Zen. IV 59737, report on quantity of wine produced;
P. Cair. Zen. IV 59739, on the transportation of wine;
P. Cair. Zen. IV 59742, list of containers for wine.
We shall look at three different leases/contract of very different date:
F. Salviat, "Le vin de Rhodes et les plantations du dPme d'Amos," in La production du vin et de l'huile en Méditerranée, eds. M.-C. Amouretti and J.-P. Brun (Athens-Paris 1993) 151-161 (study of IK Rhod. Peraia 352-354 (HO) and Alain Bresson, Recueil des inscriptions de la Pérée rhodienne (Pérée intégrée) [Paris 1991] 49-51). (SR)
P. Oxy. XIV 1631, a contract for working a vineyard, dated to 280 CE, and P. Oxy. XLVII 3354, another, still more detailed, vineyard lease. (HO)
La production du vin et de l'huile en Méditerranée, eds. M.-Cl. Amouretti and J.-P. Brun (Paris 1993).
Michael Schnebel, Die Landwirtschaft im hellenistischen gypten. Erster Band. Der Betrieb der Landschaft (Munich 1925) 239-292.
R. Billiard, La vigne dans l'Antiquité (Lyon 1913).
Harriet Blitzer, "Korwnevika. Storage-Jar Production and Trade in the Traditional Aegean," Hesp. 59 (1990) 675-711.
Here are a few links to web-based discussions of some of the agricultural products encountered here: citron.
January 27, 2004. Apiculture: Christopher Trinacty -- This session may have to be moved as I may be away at a conference.
Vergil celebrates bees in the famous long end to the Georgics. Bees are often said to have been essential for providing sweeteners in a world without cane sugar (a plant that, however, was not completely unknown to antiquity -- it's mentioned by Theophrastos and Dioskourides -- but whose introduction to the Mediterranean world as a crop came in the early Islamic period). But bees provide another, extremely important service, which has (in my view, and for reasons easy to explain) been relatively ignored: their role as pollinators. Grasses -- the family into which grains like wheat and barley fall -- are wind-pollinated, but bee pollination is crucial instead for many legumes (including vetches), vegetables (such as cucumber), and fruit trees -- including the olive. (The limited literature I have seen is ambivalent about the role of bees as grape pollinators, but there seems to be some evidence that grapes are more productive when bees contributed to pollination otherwise carried out by the wind.) It seems likely to me that much of the transportation of bees cited in our sources, rental of hives, and so forth relates to this pollination role, rather than directly to honey production. (As is the case with the hives one sees in Greece today.)
Bees attracted attention also because of their supposed propagation (if that's the right word) through the bougone, the appearance of bees in the corpse of an ox. This story recurs in all kinds of sources, and forms part of the central interest of Vergil in bees.
P. Cair Zen. III 59467 (SB 6989): letter about transport of bees (HO); compare Columella 11.14.19. P. Cair. Zen. III 59368: beekeepers deprived of their hives by official malfeasance (HO).
Plato, Nomoi 843d for a law against enticing another's bees onto your property. (HO)
Geoponica XV.2-10 (HO)
PSI 426 (date: see Reekmans, Sitometrie 58): text showing there were two harvests of honey in Egypt. (HO)
Vergil, Georgics 4.281-558.
P. Cair. Zen. 59012, to be read in Xavier Durand, Des Grecs en Palestine au IIIe siPcle avant Jésus-Christ. Le dossier syrien des archives de Zénon de Caunos (261-252) (Paris 1997) 107-121 no. 12 col. II and V, on the trade in honey. (HO)
R. D. Sullivan, "A Petition of Beekeepers," BASP 10 (1973) 5-12. (SR)
Claire Balandier, "Fonctions et usages du mile dans l'Antiquité greco-romaine," in Des hommes et des plantes. Plantes méditérranéennes, vocabulaire et usages anciens, eds. M.-Cl. Amouretti and G. Caret (Province 1993) 93-125.
HélPne Chouliara-Raios, L'abeilles et le mile en Egypte d'aprPs les papyrus grecs (Dodona 1989) 67-74, 83-89 (structure of the business of beekeeping); 99-108 (work of the beekeeper); 89-95 (beekeepers as a professional group); 74-83 (long-distance trade in honey). (SR)
G. Lüdorf, "Leitformen der attischen Gebrauchskeramik. Die Bienenkorb," Boreas 21-22 (1998-1999) 41-130.
J. E. Jones, A. J. Graham, and L. H. Sackett, "An Attic Country House Below the Cave of Pan at Vari," BSA 68 (1973) 397-414.
A few further references in the agronomists:
Varro, Res rust. 3.16.12-17; Col., RR 9.15.5-16.1; Plin., Nat. hist. 11.44-45.
J. Klek and L. Armbuster, Die Bienekunde des Altertums, 3 vols. (Leipzig 1919-1921).
Some modern works on beekeeping
K. S. Delaplane, Honey Bees and Beekeeping. A Year in the Life of an Apiary (Athens, Geor. 1993).
The Hive and the Honey Bee (Hamilton, Ill. 1992).
The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Beekeeping, eds. R. A. Morse and T. Hooper (New York 1985).
C. O'Toole and A. Raw, Bees of the World (London 1991).
T. D. Seeley, Honeybee Ecology (Princeton 1985).
M. L. Winston, The Biology of the Honey Bee (Cambridge, Mass. 1987).
February 3, 2004. The Zenon Archive and Farming in the Fayoum: Eph Lytle and Michael Laughy
The Zenon archive is a collection of several thousand documents that belonged, or related, to one Zenon of Kaunos (in Karia) who made a career for himself working for Apollonios, a high Ptolemaic official, in the mid-third century BCE. One of his tasks for Apollonios was to manage a large estate (dorea) given to him by Ptolemaios II, king of Egypt, in the Fayoum, a fertile depression west of the Nile. We will look at some of the documents from Zenon’s archive that relate to various aspects of his activities in making this estate work, but the topic is huge, and we will only scratch the surface. For the Fayoum, see now the wonderful Fayum Project website under the direction of Willy Clarysse.
Claude Orrieux, Les papyrus de Zénon. L’horizon d’un grec en Egypte au IIIe siPcle avant J.-C. (Paris 1983) 77-92 for introduction to Zenon’s Fayoum duties. (SR)
P. Zen. Pestm. Suppl. A, pp. 253-265, with Italian translation and commentary (P. Lille 1 with French translation and commentary). This papyrus sketches out the plan for laying out an agricultural plot in the Fayoum, and includes a sketch of the farm (see Plate 1 in P. Lille; pp. 254-255 in P. Zen. Pestm.). (HO)
P. Zen. Pestm. 64 (PSI 624) (HO), with H. Cadell, "La viticulture scientifique dans les archives de Zénon," Aegyptus 49 (1969) 105-120 (SR). Cadell argues that Zenon used Greek agricultural manuals to guide the planting of vines in Apollonios' Fayoum estate. We may want to consider whether we accept the argument or not (see further in the session on agricultural writers).
PSI 502 in the text published by John L. White, Light from Ancient Letters (Philadelphia 1986) 41-43 no. 18 (English translation not in handout) (HO) with J. Bingen, "Grecs et Egyptiens d'aprPs PSI 502," in Proceedings of the 12th International Congress of Papyrology (Toronto 1970) 35-40 (SR). See also HélPne Cuvigny, L'arpentage par espPces dans l'Égypte ptolémaVque d'aprPs les papyrus grecs (Brussels 1985) 19-25 no. 3 (lines 8-31 only); French translation; another a French translation: Régis Burnet, L'Égypte ancienne B travers les papyrus. Vie quotidienne (Paris 2003) Nr. 50 (non vidi).
The University of Michigan Papyrus Collection offers a nice online introduction to the Zenon Archive.
Willy Clarysse, Zénon, un homme des affaires grec B l’ombre des pyramides (Louvain 1995).
Claude Orrieux, Zénon de Caunos, parépidPmos, et le destin grec (Paris 1985).
P. W. Pestman, A Guide to the Zenon Archive, 2 vols. (Leiden 1981).
Claire Préaux, Les grecs en Egypte d’aprPs les archives de Zénon (Brussels 1947).
Tony Reekmans, La sitométrie dans les archives de Zénon (Brussels 1966).
Tony Reekmans, Consumption in the Zenon Papyri (Brussels 1996).
Michael Rostovtzeff, A Large Estate in Egypt in the Third Century B.C. A Study in Economic History (Madison 1922).
Reinhold Scholl, Sklaverei in den Zenon Papyri. Eine Untersuchung zu den Sklaventermini, zum Sklavenerwerb und Sklavenflucht (Trier 1983).
Some resources for research in papyrology
Some papyrological aides:
P. M. Pestman, The New Papyrological Primer2 (Leiden 1994).
Friedrich Preisigke, Wörterbuch der griechischen Papyrusurkunden, 4 vols. (Berlin 1925-1944), with Supplement 1 (1940-1966), ed. Winfried Rubran (Amsterdam 1969), Supplement 2 (1967-1976), ed. Hans-Albert Rupprecht (Wiesbaden 1991), and Supplement 3 (1977-1988), ed. Hans-Albert Rupprecht (Wiesbaden 2000).
Friedrich Preisigke, Namenbuch (Heidelberg 1922). This is the place to start to identify personal names.
Daniele Foraboschi, Onomasticon alterum papyrologicum. Supplemento al Namenbuch di F. Preisigke, 4 vols. (Milan 1967-n.d.). To be used with caution.
Sammelbuch griechischer Urkunden aus Ägypten (Berlin 1913/Wiesbaden 2002 --). 23 vols. so far. The Sammelbuch (abbreviated SB) collects the texts of new papyri and republishes them without commentary.
Berichtungsliste der griechischen Papyruskunden aus Ägypten (Berlin-Leipzig 1913/Leiden 2002 --). 11 vols. so far. The Berichtungsliste (abbreviated BL) reports new edirions, readings, corrections, and suggestions, including from journals.
Aristide Calderini and Sergio Daris, Dizionario dei nomi geografici e topografici dell'Egitto greco-romano (Cairo 1935-1988), 5 vols. and 1 suppl. so far.
A number of extremely useful online resources for papyrology now exist:
Checklist of Greek, Latin, Demotic and Coptic Papyri, Ostraca and Tablets resolves the abbreviations that can make papyrology so intimidating to the neophyte.
Duke Data Bank of Documentary Papyri provides on-line versions of an enormous number of papyri and can be searched quickly for comparanda. It can however be somewhat confusing to use; practice some before you rely on it. (Your browser must be configured to display results in Greek; click on the "Configure Browser" link at the top left of the page; unless you have some special Greek font installed that is supported by the Data Bank, I recommend choosing UniType 8 as the Greek interface.)
Heidelberger Gesamtverzeichnis der griechischen Papyrusurkunden Aegyptens. This online archive gives a complete bibliography for papyri (republications, later studies, changes in readings, etc.) and links to photographs which can be searched in a variety of ways.
Wörter Listen allow scholars to search quickly for words or phrases in papyri.
For symbols and abbreviations in the Zenon material, see the index by M. Muszynski in Pestman, Guide, 2.557-580. Anothergood source for symbols and abbreviations generally (i.e., not specifically for the Zenon material) is Orsilina Montevecchio, La papirologia (Torino 1973) 471-477.
Egyptian Calendar System
The Egyptian calendar system can be confusing; luckily, there are now some good aids available on the web. Basically, the Egyptian calendar consisted of 12 months of 30 days each. To make up the difference between the 360 days so gotten and the solar year, additional days, called epagomenai, were added at the end of the year. Neverthless, the calendar moved through time. For example, the first day of the Egyptian year (Thoth 1) in the second year of the reign of Alexander the Great fell on our November 14, 331 BCE; by the reign of Kleopatra VII, the first day of the year in which her 22nd (and last) regnal year fell was our August 31, 31 BCE. These calculations can be accomplished painlessly at the Date Converter for Ancient Egypt. There is a good brief introduction to the calendar in Pestman, New Papyrological Primer2.
Here are the Egyptian months, in order:
February 10, 2004. The Kellis Account Book: Ari Bryen
Work at the Dakhkel oasis in the Egyptian desert west of the Nile has brought to light a very considerable amount of written material, the most spectacular of which are a codex of three speeches of Isokrates (P. Kell. III G 95), texts attesting to the presence of a Manichean community (P. Kell. II G. 91-94 and C. 1-9), and the agricultural account book which Roger Bagnall has published with commendable speed and illuminating commentary.
Online resources include From the Sands of the Sahara, an exhibit of finds from the Monash University excavations.
Roger Bagnall, The Kellis Agricultural Account Book (P. Kell. IV Gr. 96), Dakhleh Oasis Project Monograph 7 (Oxford 1997). Please try to read 25-51, 70-80, and 86-119 lines 1-658 (account of the fifth indiction) with 182-200 (commentary on lines 1-658).
Roger S. Bagnall and K. A. Worp, The Chronological Systems of Byzantine Egypt (Zutphen 1978), for help with those confusing indiction cycles and various calendars.
Jairus Banaji, Agrarian Change in Late Antiquity. Gold, Labour, and Aristocratic Dominance (Oxford 2001) esp. 89-100, on models of the operation of large estates.
Dennis Kehoe, Management and Investment on Estates in Roman Egypt during the Early Empire (Bonn 1992).
Dominic Rathbone, Rationalism and Rural Society in Third-Century A.D. Egypt. The Heroninos Archive and Appianus Estate (Cambridge 1991). A detailed study on the basis of an archive of papyri.
Tamara Lewit, Agricultural Production in the Roman Economy, A.D. 200-400 (Oxford 1991). General study of what the title says.
I do not know much bibliography generally on ancient accounting practices, except these two basic (and not wholly satisfactory) articles:
G. E. M. de Ste. Croix, "Greek and Roman Accounting," Studies in the History of Accounting, eds. A. C. Littleton and B. S. Yaney (London 1956) 17-74.
Richard H. Macve, "Some Glosses on 'Greek and Roman Accounting'," in Crux. Essays in Greek History Presented to G. E. M. de Ste. Croix on his 75th Birthday, eds. P. A. Cartledge and F. D. Harvey (London 1985) 233-264.
For papyrological aides, see under the Zenon Archive.
February 17, 2004: Farm Tools and Farm Technology: Sarah James and Amy Dill
The identification of farm tools has a long history, both from mentions in literary and documentary sources and from archaeological finds; the works of K. D. White (listed below) remain fundamental.
Sarah describes her contribution as follows: "Agricultural processing tools can provide a variety of evidence about ancient economies and agrarian practices. On archaeological surveys, the most commonly found types of processing equipment are those used for grinding cereals and pulses (querns and hand mills) and for crushing and pressing olives and grapes (mortaria and press beds). These items are informative in several ways: 1) their material can tell us about trade patterns; 2) the form of the object can be used as a dating tool; 3) inferences can be made about the type of plants being processed and thus agrarian practices; 4) the scale of production can deduced from the type of equipment and be related to economic strategies. Many of the tools found on surveys seem to come from rural areas and it is assumed that they represent farmsteads or equipment that was placed for convenience close to the fields. Thus, the findspots of these processing tools can provide clues to rural settlement patterns in a region during different periods. These various uses of agricultural processing tools will be discussed with reference to artifacts found by the Eastern Korinthia Archaeological Survey (EKAS) between 1999 and 2002."
The basic readings for Sarah's session are marked with an (S).
Amy's interest is lithics. She writes: "The spread of extensive agriculture in the prehistoric Aegean was accompanied by several significant changes in economy, settlement pattern and settlement hierarchy, trade, and technology. Lithics, or flaked-stone tools, constitute one of the primary categories of evidence for these changes, and thus provide much useful information for the processes of agriculture, labor, and economy in the later Stone and Bronze Ages. Their use continues even into the historic ages (Iron Age through Early Modern), albeit on a reduced scale, although other types of stone equipment continue to be important in the processing of agricultural material. We will focus on various aspects of lithic technology, such as quarrying, manufacture, distribution, and use in order to illuminate the complex systems of exchange and labor necessary for extensive agricultural production."
The basic readings for Amy's session are marked with an (A). *means "read for sure."
There is an interesting list of farm tools to be found in the late agricultural writer Palladius (at Pall. 1.42.); a translation of this passage appears in John W. Humphrey, John P. Oleson, and Andrew W. Sherwood, Greek and Roman Technology. A Sourcebook. Annotated Translations of Greek and Latin Texts and Documents (London and New York 1998) 85-86 no. 3.9.
Basic Readings: Note -- there will not be a handout for this session.
Lin Foxhall, "Appendix I: Ancient Farmsteads, Other Agricultural Sites and Equipment," in A Rough and Rocky Place: The Landscape and Settlement History of the Methana Penisula, Greece, eds. C. Mee and H. Forbes (Liverpool 1997) 257-68. (S)
*Nick P. Kardulias, “The Ecology of Bronze Age Flaked Stone Tool Production in Southern Greece: Evidence from Agios Stephanos and the Southern Argolid,” AJA 96 (1992) 421-442. (A)
Daniel J. Pullen, “Ox and Plow in the Early Bronze Age Aegean,” AJA 96 (1992) 45-54. (A)
C. Runnels and T. van Andel, "The Evolution of Settlement in the Southern Argolid, Greece: An Economic Explanation," Hesperia 56 (1987) 303-334. (S)
*Curtis N. Runnels and Tjeerd van Andel, “Trade and the Origins of Agriculture in the Eastern Mediterranean,” JMA 1 (1988) 83-109. (A)
Andrefsky, William, Jr. Lithics: Macroscopic Approaches to Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
Cauvin, M.-C. Traces d’utilisation sur les outils néolithiques du proche orient. Lyon: Maison de l’Orient, 1983.
Curtis, Robert I. Ancient Food Technology. Leiden: Brill, 2001.
Hansen, Julie M. “Agriculture in the Prehistoric Aegean: Data versus Speculation,” AJA 92 (1988) 39-52.
_____. Excavations at Franchthi Cave, 7: The Paleoethnobotany of Franchthi Cave. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991.
Jameson, Michael H., Curtis N. Runnels, and Tjeerd van Andel. A Greek Countryside: The Southern Argolid from Prehistory to the Present Day. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1994.
Jensen, Helle Juel. Flint Tools and Plant Working: Hidden Traces of Stone Age Technology. Aarhus: Aarhus University Press, 1994.
Keeley, L.H. Experimental Determination of Stone Tool Uses: A Microwear Analysis. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980
Luedtke, Barbara E. An Archaeologist’s Guide to Chert and Flint (Archaeological Research Tools 7). Los Angeles: UCLA, 1992.
Perlès, Catherine, Patrick C. Vaughan, Colin Renfrew, and Arnold Aspinall. Excavations at Franchthi Cave 5: Les Industries lithiques taillées de Franchthi (Argolide, Grèce), Tome II: Les Industries du mésolithique et du néolithique initial. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990.
Piel-Desruisseaux, Jean-Luc. Outils préhistoriques: forme, fabrication, utilisation. Paris: Masson, 1990.
Renfrew, Colin, and J.R. Cann. “The Characterization of Obsidian and its Application to the Mediterranean Region,” PPS 30 (1964) 111-133.
Renfrew, Colin, J.R. Cann, and J.E. Dixon. “Obsidian in the Aegean,” BSA 60 (1965) 225-247.
Rosen, Steven A. Lithics After the Stone Age: A Handbook of Stone Tools from the Levant. London: Altamira Press, 1997.
Runnels, Curtis. “The Bronze-Age Flaked-Stone Industries from Lerna: A Preliminary Report,” Hesp 54 (1985) 357-391.
_____. “Flaked-Stone Artifacts in Greece during the Historical Period,” JFA 9.3 (1982) 363- 373.
_____. “Trade and Demand for Millstones in Southern Greece in the Neolithic and Early Bronze Age,” in A.B. Knapp and T. Stech, eds., Prehistoric Production and Exchange: The Aegean and Eastern Mediterranean. Los Angeles: UCLA, 1985.
Runnels, Curtis N. and Julie Hansen. “The Olive in the Prehistoric Aegean: The Evidence for Domestication in the Early Bronze Age,” OJA 5.3 (1986) 299-308.
Runnels, Curtis N., Daniel J. Pullen, and Susan Langdon, eds. Artifact and Assemblage: The Finds from a Regional Survey of the Southern Argolid, Greece. Vol. 1: The Prehistoric and Early Iron Age Pottery and the Lithic Artifacts. Stanford: Stanford University Press. 1995.
Semenov, S.A. Prehistoric Technology: An Experimental Study of the Oldest Tools and Artefacts from Traces of Manufacture and Wear, tr. M.W. Thompson. Bath: Adams and Dart, 1964.
Torrence, Robin. “Monopoly or direct access? Industrial organization at the Melos obsidian quarries,” in J.E. Ericson and B.A. Purdy, eds., Prehistoric Quarries and Lithic Production (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) 1984, 49-64.
_____. Production and Exchange of Stone Tools: Prehistoric Obsidian in the Aegean. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.
Vaughan, Patrick C. Use-Wear Analysis of Flaked Stone Tools. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1985.
White, K.D. Greek and Roman Technology. London: Thames and Hudson, 1984.
Whittle, Alisdair. Europe in the Neolithic: The Creation of New Worlds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Amouretti, M-C. 1986. Le pain et l’huile dans la Grece antique. Paris.
Auffaith, C., Jameson, M., Runnels, C. and T. van Andels. 1999. A Greek Countryside. Stanford.
Ault, B. 1999. Koprones and Oil Presses at Halieis: Interactions of Town and Country and the Integration of Domestic and Regional Economies. Hesperia 68(4): 549-73.
Cahill, N. 2002. Household and City Organization at Olynthus. New Haven; Leiden.
Curtis, R. 2001. Ancient Food Technology. Leiden; Boston: Brill.
Forbes, H. and L. Foxhall. 1978. The Queen of All Trees: Preliminary Notes on the Archaeology of the Olive. Expedition 21(1): 37-47.
Foxhall, L. 1993. Oil Extraction and Processing Equipment in Classical Greece. Le production du vin et de l’huile en Mediterranee BCH suppl. XXVI: 183-200.
Frankel, R. 1999. Wine and Oil Production in Antiquity in Israel and other Mediterranean Countries. Sheffield.
Hadjisavvas, S. 1992. Olive Oil Processing in Cyprus from the Bronze Age to the Byzantine Period. (SIMA 99) Nicosia.
Hitchner, R.B. 1993. Olive Production and the Roman Economy: the case for intensive growth in the Roman Empire. Le production du vin et de l’huile en Mediterranee BCH suppl. XXVI: 499-503.
Mattingly, J. 1993. “Maximum figures and Maximizing Strategies of Oil Production? Further thoughts on the processing capacity of Roman olive presses. Le production du vin et de l’huile en Mediterranee BCH suppl. XXVI: 483-498.
Runnels, C. 1988. Early Bronze Age Stone Mortars in the Southern Argolid. Hesperia 58(3): 257-72.
Runnels, C. 1981. A Diachronic Study and Economic Analysis of Millstones in the Southern Argolid. (diss. Indiana U.).
Runnels, C., D. Pullen, and S. Langdon. eds. 1995. Artifact and Assemblage: The Finds from a Regional Survey in the Southern Argolid, Greece. Stanford.
February 26, 2004: Farmhouses and Country Houses: Dimitri Nakassis and Kirsten Day
Please note: This meeting is on a Thursday instead of a Tuesday
The identification of rural structures in Greece as farm houses or "country houses" has a briefer history than that of the study of villas in western Europe, and has been attended by considerable controversy. Excavations of rural houses have been few and far between. Classics remain the Dema and Vari houses. In the late 1980s, MichPle Brunet excavated a farmhouse on Delos in conjunction with her survey of the Delian countryside. Her results have been published to date only in three reports in the BCH. In the last few years several country houses have been discovered in Macedon; not yet published, they have been the subject of an exhibition in Thessaloniki. The controversies about the function of rural towers (an issue we touched upon during our time at the Pyramid in the Argolid) can be accessed now easily through Sarah Morris's survey of towers on Leukas. The survey-related problems of identifying farm-buildings from sherd scatters and other surface evidence has received new attention in an article by D. Pettegrew with responses by Robin Osborne (who engaged in an earlier exchange with M. Brunet) and Lin Foxhall. The question of "gendered space" in the Greek house has aroused vigorous discussion in the last decade; perhaps less attention has been paid to what this phenomenon might mean in a rural, agricultural context, where women's labor was a crucial component of success, or even survival.
We have two topics here: (1) the problem of the identification of rural structures; and (2) gender and space in the house.
1. Rural Structures as "Farmsteads:" Dimitri Nakassis
Polyxeni Adam-Veleni, Effie Poulaki, and Katerina Tzanavari, Ancient Houses on Modern Roads. Central Macedonia (Athens 2003) 41-49, 53-114, 169-262 (catalogue).
MichPle Brunet, "Fouille de la farme aux jambages de granit et exploration du territoire," BCH 112 (1988) 787-791; "Ferme aux jambages de granit," BCH 113 (1989) 754-761; "Ferme aux jambages de granit," BCH 114 (1990) 906. Report of a rural house excavation in Greece that seems often to be neglected.
Sergei J. Saprykin, Ancient Farms and Land-plots on the Khora of Khersonesos Taurike (Gieben 1994) 13-62 reports on the important excavations of four farmhouses near the Black Sea.
The following two reports, published now many decades ago, remain the central data sets for folks trying to figure out what the archaeological "signature" of a rural "farm house" should look like:
J. E. Jones, L. H. Sackett, and A. J. Graham, "The Dema House in Attica," BSA 57 (1962) 75-114.
J. E. Jones, A. J. Graham, and L. H. Sackett, "An Attic Country House Below the Cave of Pan at Vari," BSA 68 (1973) 355-452.
For the debate recently opened about how to interpret shred scatters found in survey that have often been identified as "farmsteads," see:
David K. Pettegrew, "Chasing the Classical Farmstead: Assessing the Formation and Signature of Rural Settlement in Greek Landscape Archaeology," JMA 14 (2001) 189-209.
Robin Osborne, "Counting the Cost. Comments on David K. Pettegrew, 'Chasing the Classical Farmstead' JMA 14.2 (December 2001)," JMA 14 (2001) 212-216.
Lin Foxhall, "Colouring the Countryside. Response to David K. Pettegrew, 'Chasing the Classical Farmstead' JMA 14.2 (December 2001)," JMA 14 (2001) 216-222.
Lisa Nevett, House and Society in the Ancient Greek World (Cambridge 1999) 34-52, for some pre-Pettegrew thoughts on identifying people from pots in houses.
Lin Foxhall, "The Running Sands of Time: Archaeology and the Short-term," World Archaeology 31 (2000) 484-498.
2. Gendered space in the house: Kirsten Day
Xenophon, Oeconomicus VII.3-X.13 (pp. 139-163), on training a wife.
Lysias, On the Murder of Eratosthenes
Lisa Nevett, House and Society in the Ancient Greek World (Cambridge 1999) 154-175.
Walter Scheidel, "The Most Silent Women of Greece and Rome: Rural Labour and Women's Life in the Ancient World (I)," G&R 42 (1995) 202-217 and "(II)," G&R 43 (1996) 1-10.
Here I list some of the surveys that have revealed, or been interpreted to have revealed, farms or farmsteads, and some additional excavation reports, such as they are. This list is by no means complete. I have tried also to include some material from outside modern Greece, for it seems to me that such material tends to be neglected in discussions around the archaeology of rural settlement.
A. Penttinen, Berbati Between Argos and Corinth. The Excavations at Pyrgouthi in 1995 and 1997 from the Early Iron Age to the Early Roman Period (Stockholm 2001).
Sergei J. Saprykin, Ancient Farms and Land-plots on the Khora of Khersonesos Taurike (Gieben 1994).
Sarah P. Morris, "The Towers of Ancient Leukas. Results of a Topographic Survey, 1991-1992," Hesp. 70 (2001) 285-347.
Wolfgang Hoepfner and E. L. Schwandner, Haus und Stadt in klassischen Griechenland (Berlin 1994).
Lin Foxhall, "'Ancient ‘Farmsteads’ and Other Agricultural Sites and Equipment," in A Rough and Rocky Place. Settlement and Land Use in the Peninsula of Methana, Greece, eds. C. B. Mee and H. A. Forbes (Liverpool 1997) 257-268.
J. Ellis Jones, "Town and Country Houses of Attica in Classical Times," in Thorikos and the Laureion in Archaic and Classical Times, eds. H. Mussche, P. Spitaels, and F. Goemaere-De Poerck (Ghent 1975) 63-136.
Some very important work has been going on now for over ten years in the territory of Kyaneai in Lykia, under the direction of Frank Kolb (Robin Osborne mentions this work in his reply to Pettegrew's article). No comprehensive report has yet appeared, but Kolb's team has published preliminary studies with commendable rapidity. I list some relevant pages here (with apologies for not citing properly by individual author and title). All volumes of Lykische Studien are edited by Frank Kolb::
Lykische Studien 1. Die Siedlungskammer von Kyaneai (Bonn 1993) 39-45, 70-83, 87-93, 95-96.
Lykische Studien 2. Forschungen auf dem Gebiet der Polis Kyaneai in Zentrallykien. Bericht über der Kampagne 1991 (Bonn 1995) 57-68, 69-92, 93-101.
Lykische Studien 3. Der Siedlungskammer von Kyaneai in Lykien. Bericht über Feldforschung in Yavu-Bergland im Sommer 1992 (Bonn 1996) 39-50, 51-57, 59-69.
Lykische Studien 4. Feldforschung auf der Gebiet von Kyaneai (Yavu-Bergland). Ergebnisse der Kampagnen 1993/94 (Bonn 1998) 55-69, 71-86.
Lykische Studien 5. Die Siedlungskammer des Yavu-Berglandes. Bericht über die Ergebnisse der Feldforschungskampagne 1995 auf dem Territorium der zentrallykischen Polis Kyaneai (Bonn 2000) 41-57, 59-78, 79-93.
Lykische Studien 6. Feldforschung auf der Gebiet der Polis Kyaneai in Zentrallykien. Bericht über die Ergebnisse der Kampagnen 1996 und 1997 (Bonn 2003) 45-65, 67-109.
N. Kaltsas, "H arcaikhv oikiva sto Kopanavki th" Messhniva"," AE 1983  207-237.
Robin Osborne, "Buildings and Residence on the Land in Classical and Hellenistic Greece. The Contribution of Epigraphy," BSA 80 (1985) 119-128.
Robin Osborne, "‘Is It a Farm?’ The Definition of Agricultural Sites and Settlements in Ancient Greece," in Agriculture in Ancient Greece. Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium at the Swedish Institute of Athens, ed. Berit Wells (Stockholm 1992) 21-27.
Susan E. Alcock, J. F. Cherry, and J. L. Davis, "Intensive Survey, Agricultural Practice and the Classical Landscape of Greece," in Classical Greece. Ancient Histories and Modern Archaeologies, ed. Ian Morris (Cambridge 1994) 137-170
W. G. Cavanagh, J. Crouwel, R. M. V. Catling, and G. Shipley, Continuity and Change in a Greek Rural Landscape. The Laconia Survey II: Archaeological Data. London 1996.
J. L. Davis, S. E. Alcock, J. Bennet, Y. G. Lolos, and C. W. Shelmerdine, "The Pylos Regional Archaeological Project. Part I: Overview and the Archaeological Survey," Hesperia 66 (1997) 391-494.
Les Hautes Terres de Carie, eds. Alain Bresson, Raymond Descat, Pierre Debord, Patrice Brun, and Ender Varinl2o—lu (Bordeaux 2003).
Hans Lohmann, Atene. Forschungen zu Siedlungs- und Wirtschaftsstruktur des klassischen Attika, 2 vols. (Bochum 1993).
Hans Lohmann, "Survey in der Chora von Milet. Vorbericht über die Kampagnen der Jahre 1996 und 1997," AA (1999) 439-473.
C. B. Mee and W. G. Cavanagh, "Diversity in a Greek Landscape. The Laconia Survey and Rural Sites Project," in Sparta in Laconia. Proceedings of the 19th British Museum Classical Colloquium, eds. W. G. Cavanagh and S. E. C. Walker (London 1998) 141-148.
The Minnesota Messenia Expedition. Reconstructing a Bronze Age Regional Environment, eds. W. A. McDonald and G. R. Rapp, Jr. Minneapolis 1972.
A Rough and Rocky Place. Settlement and Land Use in the Peninsula of Methana, Greece, eds. C. B. Mee and H. A. Forbes. Liverpool 1997.
Sandy Pylos. An Archaeological History from Nestor to Navarino, ed. J. L. Davis. Austin 1998.
Susan B. Sutton and Keith W. Adams, Contingent Countryside. Settlement, Economy, and Land Use in the Southern Argolid since 1700 (Stanford 2000).
E. Zangger et al., "The Pylos Regional Archaeological Project. Part II: Landscape Evolution and Site Preservation," Hesperia 66 (1997) 549-641.
Following is Kirtsten's bibliography on gendered space in households:
Ault, B.A. Classical Houses and Households: An Architectural and Artifactual Case Study from Halieis, Greece. Dissertation: Indiana University 1994.
Cahill, N. Household and City Organization at Olynthus. New Haven 2002.
Fitton-Brown, A. D. “The Contribution of Women to Ancient Greek Agriculture.” LCM Vol. 9: 1984.
Foxhall, L. “Household, Gender and Property in Classical Athens.” CQ Vol. 39, 1989.
------. “The Running Sands of Time: Archaeology and the Short-Term.” World Archaeology Vol. 31: 2000.
Goldberg, M.Y. “Spatial and Behavioural Negotiation in Classical Athenian City Houses.” The Archaeology of Household Activities. P. M. Allison, ed. London 1999.
Jameson, M.H. “Domestic space in the Greek City-State.” Domestic Architecture and the Use of Space, S. Kent ed. Cambridge1990.
-------. “Private Space and the Greek City.” The Greek City: From Homer to Alexander, O. Murray and S. Price eds. Oxford 1990.
Lefkowitz, M. R. and M.B. Fant. Women’s Life in Greece and Rome: A Sourcebook in Translation, 2nd ed. Baltimore 1992.
Lysias. Against Simon. W.R.M. Lamb ed. and trans. Cambridge 2000.
------. On the Murder of Eratosthenes. W. R. M. Lamb, ed. and trans. Cambridge 2000.
Morgan, G. “Euphiletos’ House: Lysias I.” TAPA 112, 1982.
Nevett, L. “Gender Relations in the Classical Greek Household: The Archaeological Evidence.” BSA Vol. 90: 1995.
------. House and Society in the Ancient Greek World. Cambridge 1999.
------. “Separation or Seclusion?” Architecture and Order, M. Parker-Pearson and C. Richards eds. London 1994.
Osborne, R. “Buildings and Residence on the Land in Classical and Hellenitic Greece: The Contribution of Epigraphy.” BSA Vol. 80, 1985.
Walker, S. “Women and Housing in Classical Greece.” Images of Women in Antiquity, A. Cameron and A. Kuhrt, eds. London 1983.
March 2, 2004: Greek Agricultural Writers: Tim Brelinski and Lauri Reitzammer
In A Large Estate in the Third Century B.C. A Study in Economic History (Madison 1922) -- a study of the Apollonios estate in the Fayoum -- Michael Rostovtzeff wrote: "It seems that [Zenon's] instructions on raising vines were based on scientific Greek treatises adapted to the peculiar conditions of Egypt. We may trace the existence of such Greco-Roman treatises in both the Greek and the Roman treatises on agriculture." In a footnote he adds: "The practice in Egypt, as illustrated by this papyrus [P. Oxy. XIV 1631, which we know], followed closely the general instructions given by the Greek and Roman manuals of agriculture. The basis of these manuals was certainly the work done by the early Hellenistic scientists and practical men, whose work in turn rested upon the theoretical investigations of Theophrastus" (96 with n. 76).
Citing this passage of Rostovtzeff's, but based on his own work in the Negev of Israel, Philip Mayerson offered a different view forty years later ("The Ancient Agricultural Regime of Nessana and the Central Negeb," in Excavations at Nessana, 1, ed. H. Dunscombe Colt [London 1962] 213): "If a close correlation exists between the practices recommended by the agronomists of Greece and Rome and those of a remote outpost in the Negeb, it only proves the general application of traditional methods throughout the entire Mediterranean area, not instruction through scientific manuals."
There are several approaches to this topic. We can consider the history of this type of writing and its appropriate categorization among ancient genres; the relationship between theory and practice (see, besides the passage from Rostovtzeff, the views of Jameson about Androtion and the lease from Amorgos, which we will examine); the social function of such literature (definition of status of writer and reader, role of "farmer" in Greek society, and so on). A big problem subsists in the loss of almost all Greek agronomical literature; indeed, the only surviving complete agronomy manual is the Geoponica, a compilation of selections from earlier writers made probably in the tenth century CE. The Roman writers -- Cato the Elder, Varro, Columella, Celsus, Pliny the Elder, and Palladius -- borrowed heavily from their Greek predecessors (Varro, Columella, and Pliny give long lists of names of Greek agricultural writers -- see M.-Cl. Amouretti, Le pain et l’huile dans la GrPce antique. De l’araire au moulin. [Paris 1986] 230), but to follow them would take us too far I think from the strictly Greek side. Hence the (again very selective) topics below.
We have two topics for this session: (1) Xenophon's Oikonomikos, and (2) a "test" of the notion that agricultural writers' works were actually applied via a lease from the island of Amorgos and the agricultural writer Androtion.
1. Xenophon, Oikonomikos, ed. and trans. Sarah Pomeroy (Oxford 1994) XV.5-XXI.12 (pp. 181-209), on the principles of farming; see also below. Xenophon not only provides details about the how of farming (assessing soil quality, ploughing, planting, harvesting, etc.) but also explicitly ties this knowledge into a congeries of concepts about social class and status, which are the subjects of the sections listed below in the additional bibliography. Read also Pompery's introduction, pp. 9-10 (audience) and 46-57 (agriculture in Attica in the fourth century). (Lauri)
2. Androtion and the Lease of Amorgos (Tim).
Some years ago Michael Jameson suggested that the Athenian politician and general Androtion, who also wrote a (lost) book on agriculture, should be seen as the figure behind a famous land lease from the island of Amorgos. Tim will help us consider whether there is any basis for this idea.
IG XII 7 62 (SIG3 903) (HO) with the translation of Robin Osborne, Classical Landscape with Figures. The Ancient Greek City and its Countryside (London 1987) 37 (a new edition of this inscription will appear soon in the forthcoming second edition of volume 2 of Greek Historical Inscriptions). See also M. Brunet, G. Rougemont, and D. Rousset, "Les contacts agraires dans la GrPce antque. Bilan historiographique illustré par quartre exemples," Histoire et sociétés rurales 9 (1998) 211-245.
F Gr Hist (Die Fragmenta der griechiscen Historiker, ed. Felix Jacoby) III 324 F 75-82; see also the commentary, F Gr Hist III b Suppl. I 85-171 at 108 and II 77-156 (notes).
For Androtion's service on Amorgos, see IG XII 7 5 (SIG3 193; Tod 2.152).
Michael H. Jameson, "Agriculture and Greek Inscriptions: Rhamnous and Amorgos," in Praktike tou H' Diethnous Synedriou Ellenikes kai latinikes epigraphikes (Athens 1987) 2.290-292.
A Final Celebration: "Authenic" Ancient Greek Food?
The restaurant "Arheon Gevseis," located at 22 Kodratou Street by Plateia Karaiskaki, claims that "Finally the Cuisine of the ancient Greeks has been discovered." (It scares me a bit to notice they have a branch on Mykonos.) Eighteen of us (including a few guests) had dinner there after the seminar was over, on March 6. For a report with pictures, see A Night of Exotic Dining -- Greek Agriculture Meets Archeon Gevsis.
Appendix. Roads Not Taken.
There are many topics and questions related to Greek agriculture which we have omitted in this perhaps too selective and insufficiently comprehensive overview. For future reference -- and as a reminder of the extraordinary richness of the field -- I list below, with some bibliography (very dependent on the vagaries of my own interests and the limitations of my knowledge) some topics we might have pursued.
1. Law and Agriculture
Dennis Kehoe, Investment, Profit, and Tenancy. The Jurists and the Roman Agrarian Economy (Ann Arbor 1997).
Walter Ashburner, "The Farmer’s Law. I," JHS 30 (1910) 68-95, textual criticism and text at 97-108 (this text reprinted in 000-000); "The Farmer’s Law. II," JHS 32 (1912) 68-95, commentary and translation.
P. Lemerle, The Agrarian History of Byzantium from the Origins to the Twelfth Century (Galway 1979).
N. Svoronos, "Notes sur l’origine et la date du Code Rural," Travaux et Mémoires 8 (1981) 487-500.
B. W. Frier, "Bees and Lawyers," CJ 78 (1982-83) 105-114.
2. The Iconography of Agriculture on Greek Vase Painting
3. The Cultivation of the Olive
4. Cereal Culture
Geoponica Book II
5. Inscribed Agricultural Leases
Some of the Athenian land leases
Some of the Mylasean land leases
Some of the Thespian land leases
Some leases from Egyptian papyrological material (see my folder)
Private lease: SIG3 302, said by Chandezon, L'elevage 275 n. 1 to be only known inscribed private lease.
The Delian lease, ID 509, with Kent, Hesp. 000-000 (1948) 000-000
Adolf Wilhelm, "Attische Pachturkunden," AfP 11 (1935) 189-217.
6. Storage of Agricultural Products
Harriet Blitzer, "Korwnevika. Storage-Jar Production and Trade in the Traditional Aegean," Hesp. 59 (1990) 675-711.
7. The State and Agriculture: Satisfying the Demand of Large Urban Populations
8. The Ideology of Agriculture
9. Herding and Stock Raising
Christophe Chandezon, 000-000 (Paris 2003).
10. Agriculture and Warfare
Victor Davis Hanson, 000-0002 (Berkeley 000-000)
000-000, GRBS 000-000.
11. Agriculture in the Linear B Texts
12. Agricultural Labor: Slaves, Tenants, Transients, and Resident Peasants
Dennis Kehoe, Investment, Profit, and Tenancy. The Jurists and the Roman Agrarian Economy (Ann Arbor 1997).
13. Land Tenure
14. Agricultural Changes in Late Antiquity