History

Professor Euraque, Chair; Paul E. Raether Distinguished Professor of History Greenberg, Charles A. Dana Professor of History Hedrick, Charles H. Northam Professor of History Kassow∙∙, Borden W. Painter, Jr., ’58/H’95 Professor of European History Kete; Hobart Professor of Classical Languages Reger; Associate Professors Antrim, Bayliss∙∙, Cocco, Elukin, Figueroa, Gac, and Lestz; Assistant Professors Markle, Regan-Lefebvre, and Wickman; Visiting Assistant Professors Brito, Doyle and Heaney; Visiting Lecturer Rodriguez; Resident Scholar Kananovich

The history major—Historians examine the past to form a meaningful image of events previously hidden, partially understood, or deliberately misinterpreted. History is based on a foundation of documents, novels, maps, archival materials, memoirs, numbers, artifacts, and factual data combined with scholarly writings and analysis. It is a field of study that is part social science, part poetry, and always a humane quest for understanding. To know what is true about the past may be impossible, but the effort has its own rewards. The facility gained by students in interpreting the world historically can transform their consciousness and their lives. Propicit qui respicit: One who looks back looks forward.

Many approaches to history are introduced within the department’s program. Courses on the ancient world, the Middle Ages, contemporary Europe and America, the Middle East, Africa, Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean form the core of a curriculum designed to encourage a wide range of historical explorations. Social, cultural, intellectual, political, and transnational histories carry students across various areas and time periods.

Majors master the skills of critical reading, analysis, interpretation, and writing and are introduced to mutually reinforcing approaches to the past. Graduates go on to successful careers in academia, law, business, government, social service, and many other fields since the tools and worldview transmitted through the study of history creates a springboard for endeavors in many realms that rely on the skills a historian learns.

Courses at the 100 and 200 level are the foundation for the advanced seminars and writing courses of the major. Each is a portal that introduces fundamental historical perspectives, chronological ordering schemes, and the secondary literature that defines the fields surveyed. There are also methodology courses at this level that introduce ways of studying history and methods of engagement with primary-source materials.

One cardinal emphasis of the history major is original research based on primary-source materials and the creation of essays or theses that represent a synthesis of evidence and relevant historiographical materials. The upper tier of our major—the 300-level seminars—consists of small seminars whose goal is to foster original projects based on primary sources. Primary materials are also available in abundance on the Web and when not available locally can be obtained readily through the Library’s Reference Department.

While not required, the capstone of intellectual achievement in history is a two-semester thesis. The thesis may be elected by any history major following a process of application described on the department’s Web page. Successful completion of a thesis is a prerequisite for honors in the major.

Majors are required to complete 12 approved history courses with grades of C- or better. Those who select the thesis option must complete 10 approved history courses and a 2-credit thesis with grades of C- or better. At least eight of these courses, including the senior thesis, HIST 299, and HIST 300, must be completed at Trinity or in academic programs taught or sponsored by Trinity faculty. In the interest of shaping a trajectory from lower-division to higher-division courses, students may apply a maximum of two courses at the 100 and 200 levels taken during their senior year toward the major. The award of departmental honors will be based on superior performance in history courses and in a senior thesis.

Distribution Courses (5 credits)

Students must complete five distribution courses at any level (100, 200, or 300) in order to acquire thematic, geographical, and chronological breadth in the discipline. Each requirement must be fulfilled with a distinct course:

Common Courses (2 credits)

These courses constitute the common experience of all history majors. They develop methodological sophistication and research skills.

300-level seminars (4 credits)

Students are required to take a minimum of four 300-level seminars. All 300-level courses approved for the major are designated seminars and consist of intensive reading, discussion, and writing, either in the scholarly literature or the primary sources of a certain field, or in some combination of both. All 300-level courses fulfill the Writing Part II requirement.

Elective (1 credit) or Thesis Option (2 credits)

Students may apply to pursue a two-semester two-credit thesis during their senior year. They must have a minimum History GPA of 3.0 and submit a proposal and bibliography following departmental guidelines in the spring of their junior year. Students not pursuing the thesis option must take one additional elective course at any level.

Senior Thesis Application Procedure—Schedule for Spring Term of Junior Year

The Thesis Application form is on the History Department home page.

The history minor—The history minor is composed of six courses:

Students must also demonstrate competence in the historian’s craft by satisfactorily completing a major research paper based on both primary and secondary sources. This is normally completed in the 300-level seminar but may also be completed by taking HIST 300: History Workshop, and one of the four electives. Each student minoring in history will be assigned a minor adviser, who will assist the student in choosing an appropriate course of study.

Students wishing to minor in history normally must declare their intention by the second semester of their junior year. Normally all courses must be taken at Trinity. Only courses in which the student has received a grade of at least C- can count toward the minor in history.

The coordinator of the history minor is the chair of the History Department.

Study abroad—History majors are strongly encouraged to study abroad, during the academic year, summer, or both. Over 60 percent of Trinity College students take part in foreign study, and the College sponsors its own global learning sites or summer institutes abroad in many parts of the world. The Office of Study Away and its staff offer detailed information about such programs. History faculty members participate in guiding students to appropriate programs and lead such study efforts, which bear history credit, in many parts of the world.

Undergraduates intending to pursue graduate work in history should develop a reading knowledge of two foreign languages.

Fall Term

100. Modern Britain since 1750— This course surveys the profound and continuous ways in which Britain changed over the course of the eighteenth, nineteenth and twentieth centuries: in terms of its boundaries, political system, population, economy, and culture. In 1750 Britain’ refers to an agrarian state composed of three countries, with a powerful monarchy, limited democracy and a growing empire. By 1900 Britain has become a United Kingdom, a highly industrialised and urbanised state with a massive empire and a broadening democratic system; by 2000, it has lost’ its empire but is profoundly globalised and democratic. Why, when and how did these changes happen? This class will be as interactive lectures with particular time will be set aside for class discussions and analysis of primary sources. (HUM) (Enrollment limited) –Regan-Lefebvre

[102. Europe Since 1715]— European history from 1715 to the present. (HUM) (Enrollment limited)

[205. The Road to the First World War: Europe, 1870-1918]— This course will be an examination of the cultural, social, political, and diplomatic upheavals leading to Europe’s self-destruction in the First World War. We will also look at the war itself, how it pulled the entire world into the European conflict, and the war’s legacy. Topics will include the new nationalism and imperialism; mass politics, socialism and anarchism; cities and modern aesthetics; the practice of “total war”; and the Russian Revolution. Readings will include literature of the era as well as historical studies. (HUM) (Enrollment limited)

207. Law and Government in Medieval England— This course will study the evolution of English law and government in the Middle Ages from the Norman Conquest to the Stuarts. It will emphasize key concepts of common law, the nature of English kingship, the development of Parliament, the status of particular groups in English society, the evolution of governmental power, as well as some comparative material from other medieval states. The course will be taught from primary source materials with supplementary readings from secondary scholarship. (HUM) (Enrollment limited) –Elukin

[208. North American Environmental History]— This course surveys the environmental history of North America and the Caribbean from 1491 to the present. Topics include indigenous practice, colonization, agricultural intensification, industrialization, urbanization, war, waste disposal, and climate change. Above all, the course will be concerned with the political conflicts and social inequities that arose as the continent and its surrounding waters underwent centuries of ecological change. The global environmental contexts and consequences of American political and economic activities also will be emphasized. (HUM) (Enrollment limited)

209. African-American History— The experiences of African-Americans from the 17th century to the present with particular emphasis on life in slavery and in the 20th-century urban North. (HUM) (Enrollment limited) –Greenberg

213. Modern Jewish History— This course will examine major trends in Jewish history since 1789. There will be particular emphasis on Jewish society in Eastern Europe and the breakdown of orthodox hegemony. Topics will include the Haskalah, the Bund, the development of Zionism, the interwar period in Eastern Europe, the Holocaust, and the State of Israel. The approach will be primarily that of intellectual history with emphasis on the secular aspect of Jewish history. (HUM) (Enrollment limited) –Kassow

216. World War II— This is a survey of the political, military, social, cultural and economic aspects of the Second World War. (HUM) (Enrollment limited) –Kassow

217. The Histroy of Urbanism in Eastern Europe— This course will examine the economic, social, and cultural history of East European urban development during the medieval and early modern periods. We will focus on local governance, urban landscape and planning, social and educational institutions, commercial and artisan activities, religious and ethnic communities, and a new type of citizen: the burgher. To better understand urban life in the important towns of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (contemporary Belarus, Lithuania, and a part of Ukraine), we will draw comparison to the major centers of Danzig-Gdansk, Knigsberg-Krlewiec, and Krakw in central Europe and Russian towns like Great Novgorod and Moscow. The varied sources of information for the course include diaries, testaments, memories, private correspondence, engravings, drawings, and architectural monuments. (HUM) (Enrollment limited) –Kananovich

[219. Planet Earth: Past, Present and Future]— This course explores the effect of the natural world on human history and of humans on the natural world. Our focus is on the earth as a global system. We begin with a consideration of human and natural histories in deep time, well before the written record, and offer an argument for why those histories matter. We then examine how the historical past can be understood in the context of these planetary themes, reframing familiar events in ancient and modern history by highlighting major natural changes that accompanied them, such as the redistribution of plants and animals, the fluctuation of climate, and the development of planet-altering technologies. The course culminates in a consideration of the future planetary conditions that past and present actions may cause. (GLB2) (Enrollment limited)

221. Science, Religion, and Nature in the Age of Galileo— The astronomer Galileo Galilei’s trial before the Roman Inquisition nearly four centuries ago endures as a symbol of the clash between science and religion. Undoubtedly, the rise of early modern science in 17th-century Europe provoked its share of battles, but was this the whole story? This course will lead students to consider the origin and extent of the apparently irreconcilable differences between world views. How wide was the rift between science and religion, especially before the Enlightenment? Students will be encouraged to explore this complex relationship in historical context, by weighing the coexistence of scientific curiosity and intense faith, and also by considering the religious response to the expanding horizons of knowledge. The course will highlight investigations of the heavens and the earth, thus seeking instructive comparisons between disciplines such as astronomy, botany, and geology. A number of broad themes will be the focus. These include the understanding of God and nature, authority (classical and scriptural) versus observation, the wide range of knowledge-making practices, the place of magic, and finally the influence of power and patronage. The class seeks to present a rich and exciting picture, looking forward as well to the influence of rational thinking and scientific inquiry on the making of modernity. (HUM) (Enrollment limited) –Cocco

223. Japan into the Modern World, 1840-1945— Counts as one of the survey courses for the two-semester history sequence for the Asian Studies major. This course examines the social, economic, and cultural transformations that occurred in Japan from its initial encounter with Western modernity through its rise to military superpower status in the first half of the 20th century. Students will gain a greater understanding of the problems that have shaped Japan, by exploring the challenges, conflicts, triumphs, and tragedies of modernization, industrialization, and nation-building as the Japanese experienced them in the 19th and 20th centuries. The course concludes with a detailed exploration of the road to the Pacific War and the social, political, and cultural effects of mobilization for total war followed by total defeat. (GLB2) (Enrollment limited) –Bayliss

227. Ukraine and Belarus in Historical Perspective— This course is designed to equip students with a detailed understanding of the critical historical events that have influenced modern Ukraine and Belarus. In the late medieval and early modern periods (fifteenth-seventeenth centuries), this region (Western Rus’) underwent a series of important political, social, and cultural transformations that led to the formation of new ethnic entities and later nation-states (Ukraine and Belarus). Late medieval and early modern Ukraine and Belarus will be placed in a wider international context that linked them to Orthodox Europe and the Occident, as well as to the world of Islam. Understanding the history of these dynamic societies will help make some sense of the contemporary relations between Ukraine and Russia. (HUM) (Enrollment limited) –Kananovich

[228. Islamic Civilization to 1517]— This course surveys the transformation of the Middle East into an Islamic civilization from the life of Muhammad in the early seventh century through the collapse of the Mamluk Empire in 1517. It focuses on social, cultural, and political history and addresses regional variations from Morocco to Iran. Topics include women, religious minorities, and slavery, as well as Islamic education, mysticism, and literature. (GLB2) (Enrollment limited)

230. Greek Democracy in Theory and Practice— As we all know, the Greeks invented democracy or did they? This course explores the emergence and development of democracy in the city-states (poleis) of the ancient Greek world from roughly 1000 BCE to 300 CE. We focus especially on possible Near Eastern origins for democratic institutions and practices and the borrowing or parallel development of democracy in early Greek poleis; the features of the best-known Greek democracy, that of Athens in the fifth and fourth centuries BCE; and the adaptation of democracy to rule by Hellenistic kings and Roman emperors. We will also examine closely the treatment of democracy in Greek philosophy, especially Plato, Aristotle, and the Stoics. (HUM) (Enrollment limited) –Reger

238. Caribbean History— The location of the first encounter, conquest, and colonization of Native American peoples by Europeans, the Caribbean became a center of bitter rivalries between European imperial powers, and later in the 20th century a new, premiere location of the United States’ own imperial thrust. The Caribbean’s strategic location in relation to Atlantic Ocean trade routes and its tropical climate and fertile soils were key factors in shaping these imperial rivalries and the colonial and postcolonial societies that emerged in the region. The vast experience of African slavery, the later “indentured” migration of hundreds of thousands of Asians to some colonies, and the migration of similar numbers of Europeans (especially to the Hispanic Caribbean) have shaped deeply yet unevenly the nature of Caribbean societies since the 16th century, giving the Caribbean a complex multi-ethnic, yet also heavily “Western,” cultural landscape. This course will introduce students to these and other aspects of Caribbean history, from the pre-European era, through the epics of the Haitian Revolution (1791-1804) and the Cuban Revolution of 1959, to the present. (GLB2) (Enrollment limited) –Figueroa

239. Atlantic World History 1492-1815— This course analyzes the interaction of peoples, commodities, germs, and ideas between Europe, the Americas, and Africa. We focus on the period from Columbus’s “discovery” of the Americas through the revolutions in America, France, and Haiti. Studying from an Atlantic perspective complicates traditional historical narratives concerned with national development; it also leads to a more inclusive view of the colonial period in American history. The professor will sometimes lecture, but class discussion and the seminar style will predominate. (HUM) (Enrollment limited) –Doyle

241. History of China, Shang to Ming— A survey focused on the development of Chinese politics, culture, and society from 1600 B.C. to the conclusion of the Ming dynasty in 1644 A.D. This course will provide a historical introduction to the growth of a unified Chinese empire with its own homogeneous intellectual tradition and will explore the empire’s coexistence with an enormously varied cluster of regional cultures. (GLB2) (Enrollment limited) –Lestz

[243. Modern Germany]— This course will explore Germany’s rise from an assortment of states to a (re)united powerhouse at the heart of Europe. We will examine nationalism and the “failure” of 1848; Germany’s unification under Bismarck and Wilhelmine Germany; the bloody First World War and the resulting Weimar Republic; the rise of Hitler’s Nazi Party, the Second World War and the Holocaust; life in the two Germanys during the Cold War; and finally Germany’s reunification and new place on the European and world maps. The course will be formed around documents, historical studies, memoirs and films. (HUM) (Enrollment limited)

[247. Latinos/Latinas in the United States]— Who are “Latinos/Latinas” and how have they come to constitute a central ethnic/racial category in the contemporary United States? This is the organizing question around which this course examines the experiences of major Latino/Latina groups—Chicanos/Mexicanos, Puerto Ricans, and Cubans—and new immigrants from Central America and the Caribbean. We study U.S. colonialism and imperialism in the Old Mexican North and the Caribbean; migration and immigration patterns and policies; racial, gender, and class distinctions; cultural and political expressions and conflicts; return migrations and transnationalism; and inter-ethnic relations and the construction of pan-Latino/Latina diasporic identities. (HUM) (Enrollment limited)

252. African History, Origins to 1850— This course is the first part of a two-part introductory survey of African history. We will explore the rich and varied civilizations and cultures in Africa, as well as how elements of these cultures have been carried throughout the world. Because “African” as a uniform term is a creation of a later time, this course seeks to distinguish between various populations and regions on this immense continent. Beginning with human origins on the continent, we will address the major social, economic, religious, and political movements in Africa through the era of the Atlantic slave trade. Topics will include the peopling of Africa; ancient societies and African empires; African technology such as tools, weapons, art, and music; African religions and the spread of Islam and Christianity; famous early Africans such as Mansa Musa, warrior queen Nzinga, and Shaka Zulu; trans-Saharan and Indian Ocean trading routes; and the development and impact of the Atlantic slave trade. (GLB2) (Enrollment limited) –Markle

[256. Human Rights in Latin America and the Caribbean: A History]— In the 1970s and 1980s, thousands of people were “disappeared,” tortured and murdered in Latin America and the Caribbean, mostly by military regimes and by para-military death-squads. The period is often characterized as perhaps the lowest point in the modern abuse of “Human Rights” in the region. This course explores how these central notions, the human and rights, have evolved in theory and in practice in the history of the Americas. The course begins with the 16th-century debates among the Spaniards over the “humanity” of Indians and enslaved Africans; it then covers distinguishing elements of the human and rights within the legal structures of the nations created after independence from Spain in the 1820s and before the more contemporary conceptions of human rights in the aftermath of the Holocaust and the crimes against humanity during WWII. Finally, the modern conception and practice of human rights defense and legal monitoring are explored in case studies in the region from the late 1940s to the 1980s. (GLB2) (Enrollment limited)

299. What is History?— A study of the character and range of activities undertaken by historians. Students will critically evaluate the way in which historians treat evidence and draw conclusions. Topics considered will include an introduction of some of the subdisciplines within the field and an examination of a number of important exchanges on matters of substance and method currently under debate among historians. Prerequisite: This course is open only to History majors and minors. (HUM) (Enrollment limited) –Regan-Lefebvre

300. History Workshop— The Workshop seminar combines extensive readings on the topic of the seminar with a substantial research paper involving the use of primary source materials and original analysis. Prerequisite: At least one History Department course completed at Trinity. This course is primarily for History majors but permission of the instructor will allow other Trinity students interested to enroll. Prerequisite: C- or better in at least one History course completed at Trinity, or permission of instructor. (HUM) (Enrollment limited) –Greenberg

[301. Modern Britain and Imperial Culture]— This seminar will explore the ways in which British culture and society have been shaped by its past global empire, from the mid-eighteenth century through the present day. Some of our discussions will center around consumables like sugar, silk and rubber, to investigate how the Empire influenced what people ate, drank and wore. We will consider how Empire shaped public spaces through monuments, zoos and exhibitions, and how it inspired public debates about race, women, Christianity and civic responsibility. We will conclude by analyzing the effects of migration from former colonies to Britain and considering the legacy of the Empire in contemporary British life. (HUM) (Enrollment limited)

[312. Korea and Japan in Historical Perspective]— This course provides an overview of the history of relations between Korea and Japan, within the shifting contexts of imperialism and post-colonialism. Through extensive readings and class discussions, students will also gain a detailed understanding of the historiography of Korean-Japanese relations and the debates that still inform the ways the Japanese and Koreans both North and South view one another today. Students will produce a significant historiographical essay on a topic to be decided upon in consultation with the instructor. No prior coursework in Korean or Japanese history is required, but students with no background in the histories of Korea and Japan will be required to do additional reading to obtain a better understanding of the historical contexts encountered in the regular readings. (GLB2) (Enrollment limited)

315. The Pacific War: 1931-1945— This course examines the consequences of Japan’s occupation of Manchuria, Tokyo’s rejection of membership in the League of Nations, and the birth of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo. Subsequently, Japanese expansionism in north and south China and the formation of an increasingly close relationship with Italy and Germany paved the way for the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. Key topics to be examined will include the Japan’s response to Chinese nationalism, Japanese perceptions of Versaille order as it impinged upon East Asia, Japan’s theory and practice of “total war,” war in Burma and the Pacific, and the effect of the Pacific War on European colonial empires. (HUM) (Enrollment limited) –Lestz

327. World Histories of Wine— This seminar explores the history of wine, a new and growing research field in world history. We will consider how wine has been produced, traded, and consumed in both continental Europe and the “New World” since circa 1600. Topics will include: approaches to commodity history; wine, terroir and the construction of national identity; protection and global markets; technological change and modernisation; networks, trade and information exchanges; and the creation of consumers and experts. There will be a field trip to a Connecticut winery. All students will write a major research paper and it is possible to gain additional course credit for Language Across the Curriculum by undertaking foreign-language research. (HUM) (Enrollment limited) –Regan-Lefebvre

[334. Provinces of the Roman Empire]— A history of the first two centuries of the provinces of the Roman Empire, including the processes of acquisition and Romanization and the survival of regional cultures. Important themes include social conditions, economic opportunities, and religious and political change. Extensive use of archaeological evidence. (GLB2) (Enrollment limited)

[338. Eastern Europe in the Twentieth Century]— Eastern Europe was the site of tremendous upheaval and change throughout the twentieth century. A part of the Habsburg Empire until the end of the First World War, the nations of Eastern Europe - Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Yugoslavia - attempted to democratize, served as ground zero for the devastation of World War II and the Holocaust, and then were absorbed into the Soviet Bloc, where they asserted themselves through reform and revolution. Through academic texts, memoirs and primary sources, this course will delve into the history of the region explore Eastern Europe in all its myriad forms. (HUM) (Enrollment limited)

354. The Civil War and Reconstruction, 1861-1877— This course examines not only the military dimensions of the war years but also such topics as politics in the Union and the Confederacy, the presidential leadership of Lincoln and Jefferson Davis, women in the Union and Confederate war efforts, and the struggle over emancipation. The latter part of the course considers post-war political, social, and economic developments, including nearly four million African Americans’ transition from slavery to freedom, the conflict over how to reconstruct the former Confederate states, the establishment of bi-racial governments in those states, and the eventual overthrow of Reconstruction by conservative white “Redeemers.” Lectures and discussions. (HUM) (Enrollment limited) –Gac

355. The Bible in History— The Bible is arguably the most important book ever assembled. This course will explore the changing role of the Bible from Late Antiquity to the Enlightenment and its impact on society. Themes addressed in this course include: the holiness of the text, the role of the Bible in medieval culture, comparisons with the Hebrew Bible and the Koran, the impact of printing, and the critical re-conception of the Bible as a created rather than divine text. (GLB2) (Enrollment limited) –Elukin

362. The Samurai Warrior in History, Myth, and Reality— The samurai were as important for Japan’s historical and cultural transformation as they are misunderstood. This course aims at separating the myth from the reality of the samurai by examining the history of Japanese warriors and the culture they created, from their lowly origins in antiquity through their rise to hegemony during the 13th through 18th centuries, to their eventual disappearance as a distinct class in the 19th century. We will also examine the evolving image of the samurai warrior and his supposedly rigid moral code of conduct, as it appears in literature and film, from some of the earliest appearances of such images right up to today. Our purpose in examining these images of the samurai is not only to distinguish myth from reality, but also to explore the political purposes such images have been put to in legitimating samurai rule prior to the 20th century, and in informing Japanese views of themselves and non-Japanese views of Japan in the years since. (GLB2) (Enrollment limited) –Bayliss

[363. Living on the Margins of Modern Japan]— This course explores the histories and identities of groups that, for a variety of reasons, have not been considered part of “mainstream” Japanese society. Among these are ethnic minorities, such as the Ainu, Okinawans, and resident Koreans, and social minorities, such as the descendants of former outcastes groups who are referred to collectively as the Burakumin. In addition to these groups, we will also explore the nature of groups viewed as outside of the mainstream by dint of the lifestyle they lead or the circumstances that have been forced upon them, such as the yakuza (gangsters), ultra-rightwing activists, residents of slums, and others. Through such an exploration, we will come to challenge the perception, all-too-common both inside and outside of Japan, that Japanese society is homogeneous. We will also look into how this illusion of homogeneity has been constructed, and what the consequences are for those who find themselves marginalized in the process. (GLB2) (Enrollment limited)

[368. Gender and War in Twentieth Century Europe]— Between 1914 and 1945, Europe was engulfed in what can be termed its “Second” Thirty Years War. The First and Second World Wars lay waste to Europe, changing and challenging every aspect of society, including the gender order. Women were asked to make sacrifices for their nations on the Home Front, as well as enter into realms of the public sphere which had previously been forbidden. Men who took up arms had to readjust to civilian life after years spent in battle. This course will examine how the First and Second World Wars affected both men and women - how notions of femininity and masculinity were challenged and renegotiated during and after the wars. Readings will include academic texts and contemporary sources. (HUM) (Enrollment limited)

[374. Alexander the Great]— This course covers the life and times of Alexander the Great, a man who was able to subjugate most of the known world, but failed to erect a lasting political structure. When he died at the age of 33 years, he left a vast empire to be torn to pieces by his successors. However, his achievements were more than military, and his colonists built cities in places as far from Greece as modern Afghanistan, creating a new world in which Greek culture flourished. (GLB2) (Enrollment limited)

376. The French Revolution— An exploration of the Great French Revolution of 1789 that focuses on its social and political history, beginning with the Revolution’s origins in the crisis of the old regime and ending with its legacy in the nineteenth-century Europe. The course will grapple with the major historiographical debates, recently reinvigorated by an explosion of innovative scholarship on the Revolution. Topics to be examined include: the origins of the Revolution, the radicalization of the Revolution, counterrevolution, political culture and legitimacy, transformations in the civic order, the roles of different social actors (the bourgeoisie, nobles, artisans, peasants, women), the Thermidorian reaction, and the Napoleonic settlement. Students will be asked to evaluate competing interpretations and reach their own conclusions. The course will combine lecture and discussion of interpretive works and primary sources. (HUM) (Enrollment limited) –Kete

[383. Sports, Race & Nationalism]— An examination of the how sports emerged as a major sphere of society and international politics since the late 19th century and how capitalism, race, ethnicity and nationalism have played a major role in this story. We will focus our attention mainly on baseball, basketball, soccer, cricket, and “mega” sporting events, such as the Olympics and FIFA’s World Cup, with case studies from around the world. Additional attention will be given also to the interplay between sports and mega sporting events, on the one hand, and urbanization, urbanism and urban life, on the other. This course counts for both the History and INTS majors (“Global Core” in INTS). For more information, please visit the course blog at = http://sportshistory.trincoll.edu (GLB) (Enrollment limited)

[393. The Past as Protest and Prophecy in Postwar Japanese Cinema]— Through a variety of readings and film viewings, this course explores how Japanese directors from 1945 to the present have used the past as a setting in which to voice political and social commentary about contemporary Japan. We will explore films of a variety of genres – including war films, samurai dramas, science fiction films, documentaries, avant-garde films, and anime – created over the last 65 years by directors such as Fukasaku Kinji, Ichikawa Kon, Imamura Shohei, Kurosawa Akira, Mizoguchi Kenji, Oshima Nagisa, Suzuki Seijun, Tsuburaya Eiji, and others. The readings for the course will give students an appreciation of the historical settings that the films portray, the political and social contexts in which they were produced, and an understanding of each director’s political, social, and cinematic vision. These readings will allow us to discuss selected scenes of films viewed in our class meetings in a way that will highlight how postwar discourses of pacifism, internationalism, nationalism, and anti-colonialism are reflected in these cinematic works. (HUM) (Enrollment limited)

399. Independent Study— Submission of the special registration form, available in the Registrar’s Office, and the approval of the instructor and chairman are required for enrollment. (1 - 2 course credits) –Staff

466. Teaching Assistantship— Submission of the special registration form, available in the Registrar’s Office, and the approval of the instructor and chairman are required for enrollment. (0.5 - 1 course credit) –Staff

498. Senior Thesis/Research Seminar— A two-semester senior thesis including the required research seminar in the fall term. Permission of the instructor is required for Part I. (2 course credits) (Enrollment limited) –Euraque, Rodriguez

Graduate Courses

940. Independent Study— Independent studies on selected topics are available by arrangement with the instructor and written approval of the graduate adviser, and department chair. Contact the Office of Graduate Studies for the special approval form. –Staff

953. Research Project— The graduate director, the supervisor of the project, and the department chair must approve special research project topics. Conference hours are available by appointment. Contact the Office of Graduate Studies for the special approval form. One course credit. –Staff

954. Thesis Part I— Thesis Part I is an investigation and report on an original research topic. Conference hours are available by appointment. Registration for the thesis will not be considered final without the thesis approval form and the signatures of the thesis adviser, graduate adviser, and department chair. Please refer to the Graduate Studies Catalog for thesis requirements. Contact the Office of Graduate Studies for the special approval form and the thesis writer’s packet. Two course credits. (The two course credits are considered pending in Part I of the thesis; they will be awarded with the completion of Part II.) (2 course credits) –Staff

955. Thesis Part II— Continuation of History 954. Two course credits. (2 course credits) –Staff

956. Thesis— (2 course credits) –Staff

Courses Originating in Other Departments

American Studies 285. Born in Blood: Violence and the Making of America— View course description in department listing on p. 250. –Gac

[American Studies 423. The History of American Sports]— View course description in department listing on p. 253.

[International Studies 101. Understanding the History, Culture and Politics of Latin America & the Caribbean]— View course description in department listing on p. 575.

International Studies 238. Contemporary Africa: Resource Wars and Human Rights— View course description in department listing on p. 577. Prerequisite: C- or better in at least one college-level course that addresses the history of Africa before or during the colonial era, including History 252, 253, or 331. –Markle

International Studies 314. Black Internationalism— View course description in department listing on p. 578. Prerequisite: C- or better in International Studies 101, International Studies112, History 238, or History 253. –Markle

[Italian Studies 236. Modern Italy]— View course description in department listing on p. 653.

[Jewish Studies 230. Jewish Response to the Holocaust]— View course description in department listing on p. 609.

[Language & Cultural Studies 236. Modern Italy]— View course description in department listing on p. 616.

Women, Gender, and Sexuality 315. Women in America— View course description in department listing on p. 861. –Hedrick

Spring Term

[100. Modern Britain since 1750]— This course surveys the profound and continuous ways in which Britain changed over the course of the eighteenth, nineteenth and twentieth centuries: in terms of its boundaries, political system, population, economy, and culture. In 1750 Britain’ refers to an agrarian state composed of three countries, with a powerful monarchy, limited democracy and a growing empire. By 1900 Britain has become a United Kingdom, a highly industrialised and urbanised state with a massive empire and a broadening democratic system; by 2000, it has lost’ its empire but is profoundly globalised and democratic. Why, when and how did these changes happen? This class will be as interactive lectures with particular time will be set aside for class discussions and analysis of primary sources. (HUM) (Enrollment limited)

[103. Latin America & Caribbean through Film]— This course introduces students to the history and current cultures of Latin America and the Caribbean through film and film movements. It covers their history from 1492 to the present. Themes include: conquest and colonization of Native peoples; African slavery in Brazil and the Caribbean; the interplay of gender, race, class, and sexuality, from the politics of love and solidarity to the politics of subordination and oppression; the contrast between rural and urban society, with an emphasis on urban-centered films; the cultural creativity of the region’s artists in music, film, visual arts, literature and architecture; the role of religion in daily life and politics; and the confrontations of oligarchies and military regimes with movements for reform, democracy and revolution. (GLB2) (Enrollment limited)

[115. History of the Greek World: c. 1500-200 BCE]— This course covers the history of the Greek world—Greece, the Aegean islands, western Asia Minor, the Black Sea, and southern Italy and Sicily—in the period between the end of the Bronze Age and the arrival of the Romans (c. 1500-200 BCE). The emergence of the polis, the Greek city-state, as the predominant way to organize political, social, economic, religious, and cultural life, and the spread of these institutions, form the central foci of the course. There will be emphasis on the reading and interpretation of primary source material through lectures, discussions, and analytical writing. (GLB2) (Enrollment limited)

[116. The Rise and Fall of the Roman Republic]— By about 300 BCE the Roman state had in place its republican institutions, and began the expansionist process by which the Romans came to control the Mediterranean basin. Four hundred years later, the Roman empire extended from Britain to Egypt, but the state running that empire had undergone fundamental social, political, and cultural changes. This course traces the processes that created the empire and transformed the Roman world, with special emphasis on the interplay of political and social phenomena. We will look closely at primary sources on which our knowledge of these changes is based. (GLB2) (Enrollment limited)

135. War and Gender in Europe 1914-1945— Between 1914 and 1945, Europe was destroyed, rebuilt and destroyed once more. All aspects of society were affected and changed by the wars, including the gender order. This course will examine the breaks, as well as the continuities, in the relationship between men and women over the course of two devastating World Wars. The wars forced women to take on jobs previously restricted to men, as well as navigate the challenges of the Home Front; meanwhile, men were tasked with reintegrating into society after facing the horrors of war, often returning to a home that was much different than the one they had left. Through memoirs, scholarly texts, and film, we will explore how the wars affected conceptions of both femininity and masculinity in Europe. (HUM) (Enrollment limited) –Rodriguez

[201. The United States from the Colonial Period through the Civil War]— This course introduces students to major developments in the political, economic, and social history of North America between 1492 and 1865. We will study encounters between Europeans and Native Americans, the founding of European colonies, the rise of the Atlantic slave trade, the Seven Years’ War, the American Revolution, the spread of plantation slavery, the War of 1812, Indian removal, westward expansion, the U.S.-Mexican War, and the Civil War. Students will be challenged to imagine American history within Atlantic and global contexts and to pay attention to North American borderlands. Perspectives to be considered include those of explorers, naturalists, sachems, warriors, captives, slave traders, overseers, field slaves, indentured servants, merchants, artisans, sailors, farmers, mothers, children, missionaries, midwives, manufacturers, laborers, and governing officials. (HUM) (Enrollment limited)

[206. Bible and History of the Book]— The Bible is arguably the most important book ever composed. In order to understand the evolution of the Bible, it is important to study the Bible in the larger context of the history of the book as a technological instrument. To that end, this seminar will explore the creation of the Bible and its development through formats of scroll, manuscript codex , printed book, and now digital representations. We will try to understand how the physical incarnations of the Bible shaped the ways people perceived, read, and treated Scripture (and the Torah and Koran). How could a physical object be thought to contain divine revelation? Ideally, the course will use the “biography” of the Bible to explore the larger questions of the history of the book. (HUM) (Enrollment limited)

[207. Law and Government in Medieval England]— This course will study the evolution of English law and government in the Middle Ages from the Norman Conquest to the Stuarts. It will emphasize key concepts of common law, the nature of English kingship, the development of Parliament, the status of particular groups in English society, the evolution of governmental power, as well as some comparative material from other medieval states. The course will be taught from primary source materials with supplementary readings from secondary scholarship. (HUM) (Enrollment limited)

[209. African-American History]— The experiences of African-Americans from the 17th century to the present with particular emphasis on life in slavery and in the 20th-century urban North. (HUM) (Enrollment limited)

[210. Paris: Capital of the Nineteenth Century]— In this history of Paris we explore the revolutions in politics, culture and class which usher into being one of the most dynamic and influential spaces in European and world history. Topics include the revolutions of 1830 and 1848; the rebuilding of Paris during the Second Empire; and the invention of modern art by the Impressionists and their successors. We also discuss the Commune of 1871 (in Marx’s view, the first socialist revolution), the Dreyfus Affair (which brings anti-Semitism to the center stage of European politics), and the advent of the New Woman’ whose dress and behavior crystallize a feminist challenge to the masculine politics of the age. (HUM) (Enrollment limited)

212. The Crusades and Medieval Society— An introductory survey of the political, social, military, and religious history of the Crusades. Using primary sources, the course will also examine how aspects of the Crusades reveal broader themes in medieval history, including: European identity, pilgrimage, religious violence, technological innovation, perceptions of non-Europeans, and the influence of the Crusades on early modern voyages of discovery. Lecture and discussion format. (GLB2) (Enrollment limited) –Elukin

[213. Modern Jewish History]— This course will examine major trends in Jewish history since 1789. There will be particular emphasis on Jewish society in Eastern Europe and the breakdown of orthodox hegemony. Topics will include the Haskalah, the Bund, the development of Zionism, the interwar period in Eastern Europe, the Holocaust, and the State of Israel. The approach will be primarily that of intellectual history with emphasis on the secular aspect of Jewish history. (HUM) (Enrollment limited)

[214. Eastern Europe Since 1848]— “Eastern Europe” usually evokes images of grey buildings and Communist workers. But this points to only one historical moment of a region that has been a cosmopolitan empire, a site of new democracies, and the killing grounds of millions of Europeans. This course will explore the various “Eastern Europes” which have existed since 1848, starting with the Austro-Hungarian Empire. With its dissolution after the First World War, we will follow the history of Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia from the interwar period, through the destruction and horror of World War II, the establishment of the Soviet Bloc and finally the fall of Communism. We will explore issues of nationalism, fascism and socialism in the Eastern European context. Readings will include contemporary novels, memoirs and film. (HUM) (Enrollment limited)

215. Latin American Cities— Course examines the historical evolution and current dynamics of Latin American cities, from the pre-colonial (pre-1492), to the colonial (14921825) and post-colonial (since the 1800’s) periods. A variety of sources allow us to explore specific examples from several cities, including: Buenos Aires, Bogot, Brasilia, Caracas, Havana, Mexico City, Lima, Rio de Janeiro, and So Paulo, for example. Topics include colonialism, nationalism and transnationalism; urban slavery and race; rural-urban and ethnic migrations; industrialization and the urban working-class; urbanism, urban spaces and architecture; authoritarianism, populism and democratization; and consumer cultures, sports and leisure, among others. (GLB2) (Enrollment limited) –Figueroa

218. United States Since 1945— This course examines America since World War II. We will explore both political events and cultural and social trends, including the Cold War, rock ’n’ roll, civil rights, feminism, Vietnam, consumerism and advertising, the New Right and the New Left, the counterculture, religious and ethnic revivals, poverty, and the “me” generation. (HUM) (Enrollment limited) –Greenberg

219. Planet Earth: Past, Present and Future— This course explores the effect of the natural world on human history and of humans on the natural world. Our focus is on the earth as a global system. We begin with a consideration of human and natural histories in deep time, well before the written record, and offer an argument for why those histories matter. We then examine how the historical past can be understood in the context of these planetary themes, reframing familiar events in ancient and modern history by highlighting major natural changes that accompanied them, such as the redistribution of plants and animals, the fluctuation of climate, and the development of planet-altering technologies. The course culminates in a consideration of the future planetary conditions that past and present actions may cause. (GLB2) (Enrollment limited) –Cocco, Kete, Wickman

[222. Japan from the Dawn of Human History to the 17th Century]— This course provides a broad overview of the events and themes encountered in Japan’s early history, from the earliest archeological evidence of human habitation to the establishment of a stable political and social order under the Tokugawa bakufu (shogunate). The course will explore the role of diverse religious and cultural influences in shaping Japanese society and culture during the pre-modern era. Themes and topics of particular interest are the impact of Chinese civilization and the “indigenization” of imported traditions such as Buddhism and Confucianism, early political organization and the rise of the imperial clan, and civil war and the ascendance of the warrior class to political and cultural hegemony. (GLB2) (Enrollment limited)

224. Gender in Brazilian History, from Colonialism to the 20th Century— Since colonization, Brazilian society stabilized specific roles for men and women in its national discourse. We will debate how gender roles marked the experiences of Brazilian indigenous, European and afro-descent populations before and after colonialism. Gender categories also affected the lives of enslaved and freed people, since they created specific experiences for black men and women, and peculiar ways of social uplift that depended on the gender of individuals. In the 20th Century, government propaganda produced a discourse of national identity that influenced the way in which Brazilian men and especially women were seemed national and internationally. The debates and demands carried by LGBT, feminists and other social movements in Brazil who are dedicated to equalizing the rights of people will also be discussed. (HUM) (Enrollment limited) –Staff

[226. The Rise of Modern Russia]— This course will examine the history of Russia from 1825 until the present. It will include the dilemmas of modernization and social stability in Tsarist Russia, the challenges of Empire and multinational populations, the impact of the intelligentsia and the causes of the revolutions of 1905 and 1917. We will then consider topics in the rise and fall of the USSR: Lenin, Stalin, World War II, the problems of de-Stalinization and the reasons that attempts to reform the Soviet system failed. The course will also make extensive use of literary materials. (HUM) (Enrollment limited)

[229. Middle East Since 1517]— This course surveys Middle Eastern history from the foundations of the Ottoman and Safavid Empires through the 20th century. Major topics include modernity, imperialism, nationalism, and the role of Islam. Textbook readings are supplemented with primary sources and biographical sketches to situate the complexities of gender and culture in the context of political and economic change. (GLB2) (Enrollment limited)

231. Abraham’s Children: Jews, Christians, and Muslims in the Middle Ages— Jews, Christians and Muslims all claimed Abraham as the founder of their particular form of monotheism. In the Middle Ages, men and women from all three groups had to negotiate relationships in war and peace. Jews lived among Christians and Muslims. Christians and Muslims fought in the Crusades, and all three groups traded with each other in the cosmopolitan cities of the Mediterranean. What kinds of worlds did these people live in? Were they worlds of prejudice and hatred or a pragmatic tolerance? How were the identities of Jews, Christians and Muslims shaped by their interactions during the Middle Ages? Are we still living with the results of those interactions? (HUM) (Enrollment limited) –Elukin

233. (Re)Connecting the Black Atlantic: Comparing Afro-Brazilian and African-Am. Hist til the 19th Cent— This course explores slavery, abolition, and freedom in Brazil and the United States from the 16th to the 19th century. Where only 400,000 Africans were transported to North America during this time, more than 4 million were brought to Brazil, the largest Latin American country. From such numbers, in both countries, in the United States somewhat organically through reproduction and in Brazil through importation, emerged the foundation of massive slave societies. Slavery in the U.S. relied on a highly racialized society, one that formally institutionalized a racial code; slavery in Brazil was less formalized, but no less racial. Such differences had important implications for the eradication of slavery in the two countries. (HUM) (Enrollment limited) –Staff

242. History of China, Qing to Present— A survey of modern Chinese history in the period covering the last traditional dynastic state (1644-1911) and 20th-century China. Emphasis on the collapse of the Confucian state, China’s “Enlightenment,” and the Chinese Revolution. (GLB2) (Enrollment limited) –Lestz

247. Latinos/Latinas in the United States— Who are “Latinos/Latinas” and how have they come to constitute a central ethnic/racial category in the contemporary United States? This is the organizing question around which this course examines the experiences of major Latino/Latina groups—Chicanos/Mexicanos, Puerto Ricans, and Cubans—and new immigrants from Central America and the Caribbean. We study U.S. colonialism and imperialism in the Old Mexican North and the Caribbean; migration and immigration patterns and policies; racial, gender, and class distinctions; cultural and political expressions and conflicts; return migrations and transnationalism; and inter-ethnic relations and the construction of pan-Latino/Latina diasporic identities. (HUM) (Enrollment limited) –

[253. African History: 1850 to the Contemporary Era]— This course is the second part of a two-part introductory survey of African history. With a focus on “Black Africa” south of the Sahara, we will begin by exploring the impact of the abolition of the Atlantic slave trade on Africa and move to the establishment of - and resistance to - European colonial rule. We will then look at the impact of the two World Wars on Africa as well as the rise in nationalism and movements for independence. In the postcolonial period, we will explore Cold War policies in Africa, and address issues including the end of apartheid in South Africa, the politics of foreign aid and military interventions, global health and resource wars. (GLB2) (Enrollment limited)

256. Human Rights in Latin America and the Caribbean: A History— In the 1970s and 1980s, thousands of people were “disappeared,” tortured and murdered in Latin America and the Caribbean, mostly by military regimes and by para-military death-squads. The period is often characterized as perhaps the lowest point in the modern abuse of “Human Rights” in the region. This course explores how these central notions, the human and rights, have evolved in theory and in practice in the history of the Americas. The course begins with the 16th-century debates among the Spaniards over the “humanity” of Indians and enslaved Africans; it then covers distinguishing elements of the human and rights within the legal structures of the nations created after independence from Spain in the 1820s and before the more contemporary conceptions of human rights in the aftermath of the Holocaust and the crimes against humanity during WWII. Finally, the modern conception and practice of human rights defense and legal monitoring are explored in case studies in the region from the late 1940s to the 1980s. (GLB2) (Enrollment limited) –Euraque

258. Hearts & Minds: America’s War in Vietnam— America’s Vietnam War was a culminating event in histories and cultures of both US and Vietnam, and a defining moment of the Cold War. For the US, war was a demoralizing, bitterly contested foreign adventure, spawning huge domestic anti-war movement of 1960s and -70s, ongoing post-war disagreement over appropriate “lessons” to be drawn - even over what actually happened - and continuing debate over whether the current Global War on Terror is comparable. War ended President Johnson’s political career. For Vietnam, war was destructive, an exhausting battle-to-the-death, combining elements of insurgency with civil, revolutionary, and conventional war-making, ultimately elevating Ho Chi Minh to iconic status. This course treats war’s complicated racial, gender, and class issues, and features guest speakers, and pop-cultural interpretations of conflict. Professor is combat veteran of the war. (HUM) (Enrollment limited) –Staff

[260. The American Civil Rights Movement]— African Americans and their allies have long struggled to win equal rights and equal opportunities in America. We will examine the course of that struggle in the twentieth century, focusing primarily on the period 1950-1968. We will consider questions of urbanization, employment, racism, politics, violence, non-violence, Black Power and the notion of “race blindness.” The end of the course will be spent considering the present day. What has been resolved, and what issues remain? Are there new challenges to achieving racial equality in the U.S? Have we become “post-racial” yet, and do we want to be? (HUM) (Enrollment limited)

261. World War I in History and Memory— The First World War devastated Europe for four years, and in its wake left a new world order. Empires fell and new countries rose in their place. The social, political and gender order were all challenged during the war. This course will examine not only the war itself the major battles, the Home Fronts, the revolutions that followed but how the war has been remembered over the past century. We will examine novels and memoirs, war poetry, and popular film to discover how the war’s place in history and memory has changed. (HUM) (Enrollment limited) –Rodriguez

270. Parliamentary Debate in History and Practice— This course introduces the history of debate in the British parliamentary tradition and the practice of debate as a collegiate extra-curricular activity. The course is a dynamic mix of lecture, seminar-style discussion and experiential learning. The course has three components: historical background to and analysis of the British parliamentary system, drawing on the emerging field of the history of rhetoric; primary source analysis of historical speeches and debates; applied sessions when students will draft and practice their own debates in teams. Written exercises include developing a time-space case’ based in British history. Students will complete the course with a broader understanding of British political history, a deeper sensitivity to political rhetoric, and stronger oral and written argumentation and communication skills. No debate experience is necessary. (HUM) (Enrollment limited) –Regan-Lefebvre

[283. African Diaspora in Latin America and the Caribbean]— Of the approximately 12 million African slaves brought to the Americas, more than 11 million were taken to Brazil, the Caribbean and other parts of Latin America. This course examines the origins of the African slave trade and slavery; the evolution of racial ideologies; forms of resistance, including the successful Haitian Revolution (1791-1804); and the century-long struggle to end slavery (1783-1888). We will also study how African, Afro-Latin American, and Afro-Caribbean peoples forged distinctive but inter-related Diasporic cultures (in religion, music, art, literature) and political movements for racial justice. Almost every Latin American & Caribbean country will be examined, including Brazil, Cuba, Jamaica, Colombia, Argentina, and others. Throughout the course comparisons will be made with African-American history in the USA. (HUM) (Enrollment limited)

299. What is History?— A study of the character and range of activities undertaken by historians. Students will critically evaluate the way in which historians treat evidence and draw conclusions. Topics considered will include an introduction of some of the subdisciplines within the field and an examination of a number of important exchanges on matters of substance and method currently under debate among historians. Prerequisite: This course is open only to History majors and minors. (HUM) (Enrollment limited) –Wickman

300. History Workshop— The Workshop seminar combines extensive readings on the topic of the seminar with a substantial research paper involving the use of primary source materials and original analysis. Prerequisite: At least one History Department course completed at Trinity. This course is primarily for History majors but permission of the instructor will allow other Trinity students interested to enroll. Prerequisite: C- or better in at least one History course completed at Trinity, or permission of instructor. (HUM) (Enrollment limited) –Lestz

[303. Modern Ireland, Global Island]— This course explores the complicated and contentious process through which Ireland transformed from a single political entity within the British Empire to two separate entities: the Republic of Ireland, an independent state, and Northern Ireland, which remained part of the United Kingdom but has suffered decades of civil strife. Through class discussion and careful analysis of primary and secondary sources, we will look at the major political, social and economic changes on the island of Ireland since 1800. We will pay special attention to the island’s interaction with the wider world, including through its diaspora, and we will examine whether Ireland’s political history can be understood in terms of decolonisation and post-colonialism. (Enrollment limited)

[304. Renaissance Italy]— This course explores the origin, distinctiveness, and importance of the Italian Renaissance. It is also about culture, society, and identity in the many “Italies” that existed before the modern period. Art, humanism, and the link between cultural patronage and political power will be a focus, as will the lives of 15th- and 16th-century women and men. Early lectures will trace the evolution of the Italian city-states, outlining the social and political conditions that fostered the cultural flowering of the 1400s and 1500s. We will consider Florence in the quattrocento, and subsequently shift to Rome in the High Renaissance. Later topics will include the papacy’s return to the Eternal City, the art of Michelangelo and Raphael, and the ambitions of the warlike and mercurial Pope Julius II. Italy was a politically fragmented peninsula characterized by cultural, linguistic, and regional differences. For this reason, other topics will include: the fortunes of Venice, the courts of lesser city-states like Mantua and Ferrara, the life of Alessandra Strozzi, and the exploits of the “lover and fighter” Benvenuto Cellini. We will also look at representations of the Renaissance in film.

(HUM) (Enrollment limited)

[311. Sense of Place in the Native Northeast]— The coasts, rivers, fields, and hills of present-day Connecticut, Massachusetts, Vermont, New Hampshire, Maine, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia have been home for indigenous families and communities through numerous environmental, political, and economic transformations. Students will learn about the ways that Native Northeasterners, from Pequots to Micmacs, have adapted, recreated, and reaffirmed a deep connectedness to their homelands, from the fifteenth century to the present. Fields trips to local sites and archives and consultations with tribal historians will facilitate original historical research. Primary sources to be assigned include autobiographies, travel narratives, war histories, maps, Native American stories, and dictionaries of indigenous place names, and secondary source readings will cover major themes in Native American studies, with special emphasis on sense of place. (HUM) (Enrollment limited)

[315. The Pacific War: 1931-1945]— This course examines the consequences of Japan’s occupation of Manchuria, Tokyo’s rejection of membership in the League of Nations, and the birth of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo. Subsequently, Japanese expansionism in north and south China and the formation of an increasingly close relationship with Italy and Germany paved the way for the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. Key topics to be examined will include the Japan’s response to Chinese nationalism, Japanese perceptions of Versaille order as it impinged upon East Asia, Japan’s theory and practice of “total war,” war in Burma and the Pacific, and the effect of the Pacific War on European colonial empires. (HUM) (Enrollment limited)

322. Shanghai: From Treaty Port to Megacity— In a few decades after its forcible opening as a Treaty Port in 1842, Shanghai emerged as Asia’s greatest port. It quickly grew to an international city that played a defining in China role as a catalyst for cultural, social, and economic change. After 1937, however, war, civil war, and revolution put the brakes on Shanghai’s advance. After the late 1980’s, Shanghai reemerged as one of the world’s leading centers of trade and a meeting place of civilizations. Today the city is the linchpin of the economy of the Yangtze River basin and China’s foremost gateway to the world. Using historical, literary, and documentary materials this course will reflect on the evolution of Shanghai and the role it played as a catalyst for change in various eras. (Enrollment limited) –Lestz

[325. Italy and the Mediterranean]— This seminar examines the history of Italian coasts from the Middle Ages up to the period of nineteenth-century national unification. The focus in the first instance will be the history of port cities as well as the coastal stretches that lay between urban centers of power and commerce. As the chronology shifts toward later periods, the historical investigation of shores will also develop comparisons to coastal cultures elsewhere in the world. (HUM) (Enrollment limited)

[326. Disaster Archipelago: Volcanoes, Earthquakes, Tsunamis, and the Japanese]— Japan is one of the most seismically active countries in the world. Throughout history, people have dealt with devastation from volcanic eruptions, frequent earthquakes, and killer tsunamis. This course explores the history of these catastrophes and their aftermaths from a variety of perspectives: economic, political, social, and cultural. How have the Japanese people coped with these disasters and attempted to prepare for them, in light of shifting political contexts and evolving knowledge of the geologic mechanisms involved? Students will explore and discuss a wide variety of primary and secondary sources on Japanese ways of appreciating and dealing with disasters past and present, including memoirs, novels, and films. The course will culminate with an in-depth examination of the march 2011 tsunami and its aftermath. (GLB2) (Enrollment limited)

327. World Histories of Wine— This seminar explores the history of wine, a new and growing research field in world history. We will consider how wine has been produced, traded, and consumed in both continental Europe and the “New World” since circa 1600. Topics will include: approaches to commodity history; wine, terroir and the construction of national identity; protection and global markets; technological change and modernisation; networks, trade and information exchanges; and the creation of consumers and experts. There will be a field trip to a Connecticut winery. All students will write a major research paper and it is possible to gain additional course credit for Language Across the Curriculum by undertaking foreign-language research. (HUM) (Enrollment limited) –Regan-Lefebvre

[328. Transnational Urbanism: Life in Urban Spaces]— This course explores urban history and the history of urbanism by focusing on a selected group of cities in Europe, the Americas, Africa, and Asia. It traces the global routes that urbanism has taken since Paris was transformed in the 19th century into the ideal city of modernity. Topics examined include not only urban space, planning, and architecture, but also politics and social movements, capitalism, and mass consumption, as well as sports, literature, and film. Throughout we will pay close attention to how each city’s national and international context produced particular urban forms and urban cultures that nonetheless shared certain global patterns. (GLB) (Enrollment limited)

332. African Nationalism and Decolonization— This course examines both the theoretical and empirical aspects of anticolonial nationalist movements in Africa from the end of World War II to the dismantling of the apartheid regime in South Africa in the early 1990s. Topics such as nonviolent civil disobedience, armed guerilla struggle, nationalist thought, and postcolonial state formation will inform the ways in which we seek to understand the end of European colonial rule and its social, economic, cultural, and political implications for Africa. A series of case studies will acquaint students to such themes as well as highlight the utility of an interdisciplinary approach for examining a broad array of historical developments. The second half of the course will focus on southern Africa, using the Aluka digital archive, “The Struggles for Freedom in South Africa Collection.” (GLB2) (Enrollment limited) –Markle

334. Provinces of the Roman Empire— A history of the first two centuries of the provinces of the Roman Empire, including the processes of acquisition and Romanization and the survival of regional cultures. Important themes include social conditions, economic opportunities, and religious and political change. Extensive use of archaeological evidence. (GLB2) (Enrollment limited) –Reger

344. America’s Most Wanted: True Crime and the American Imagination— Americans are fascinated by crime. We read detective fiction, watch police dramas, and hold murder mystery dinners. When the crimes are real, we debate guilt or innocence, punishment or rehabilitation, death penalty or life in prison at our dinner tables. Why this fascination, and what does it tell us about our culture and our concerns? In this course we examine several actual crimes and try to understand what made these crimes, and not others, so riveting. What drew us in? What kept us there? Along the way we will also discuss changing police and penal practices, how attitudes about race, class, religion, and gender play into public fixations on particular crimes, and how and why those attitudes shifted over time. (HUM) (Enrollment limited) –Greenberg

380. Brazil: From Colony to Emerging Power— This course introduces students to the history of the largest Latin American country. The timeline covers the pre-European indigenous era, the Portuguese Colonial period (1500s-1822), the post-independence era (1822-1889), and contemporary history until the present. Topics include the conquest of indigenous cultures and environmental degradation; African slavery and Afro-Brazilian culture; gender, sexuality, and race in Brazilian music, dance, soccer and religion; urbanism and urban life; Brazilian cinema; the politics of democracy, citizenship, and military power; and the transformation of Brazil in recent decades into an emerging economic power. (GLB2) (Enrollment limited) –Figueroa

[395. History of the Alps]— In the 1990s the European Union recognized the Alpine region as a distinct regional unit. This course is a history of that storied region extending from the Mediterranean to the Adriatic by way of Italy, France, Switzerland, Germany, Austria and the Balkans. Topics include the discovery’ of the Alps by European elites in the Age of Enlightenment; the Alps as archive of geological time and center of romantic science; the invention and commercialization of alpine sports; the appeal of the Alps as a place of retreat and healing, and their politicization by fascist Italy and Nazi Germany in the 1920s and 1930s respectively. We end with a consideration of the future of the region in the face of global warming and the promises of trans-nationalism. (HUM) (Enrollment limited)

399. Independent Study— Submission of the special registration form, available in the Registrar’s Office, and the approval of the instructor and chairman are required for enrollment. (1 - 2 course credits) –Staff

466. Teaching Assistantship— Submission of the special registration form, available in the Registrar’s Office, and the approval of the instructor and chairman are required for enrollment. (0.5 - 1 course credit) –Staff

499. Senior Thesis/Continuation— Submission of the special registration form, available in the Registrar’s Office, and the approval of the instructor and chairman are required for each semester of this year-long thesis. (2 course credits) –Staff

Graduate Courses

940. Independent Study— Independent studies on selected topics are available by arrangement with the instructor and written approval of the graduate adviser, and department chair. Contact the Office of Graduate Studies for the special approval form. –Staff

953. Research Project— The graduate director, the supervisor of the project, and the department chair must approve special research project topics. Conference hours are available by appointment. Contact the Office of Graduate Studies for the special approval form. One course credit. –Staff

954. Thesis Part I— Thesis Part I is an investigation and report on an original research topic. Conference hours are available by appointment. Registration for the thesis will not be considered final without the thesis approval form and the signatures of the thesis adviser, graduate adviser, and department chair. Please refer to the Graduate Studies Catalog for thesis requirements. Contact the Office of Graduate Studies for the special approval form and the thesis writer’s packet. Two course credits. (The two course credits are considered pending in Part I of the thesis; they will be awarded with the completion of Part II.) (2 course credits) –Staff

955. Thesis Part II— Continuation of History 954. Two course credits. (2 course credits) –Staff

Courses Originating in Other Departments

[American Studies 390. Born This Way: The Science of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity, 1860s to the Present]— View course description in department listing on p. 263.

[American Studies 423. The History of American Sports]— View course description in department listing on p. 265.

[American Studies 438. America Collects Itself]— View course description in department listing on p. 265.

International Studies 216. Understanding the History, Culture and Politics of Latin America & the Caribbean— View course description in department listing on p. 583. –Euraque

[International Studies 309. Development in Africa: From Civilizing Mission to World Bank]— View course description in department listing on p. 585.

Jewish Studies 230. Jewish Response to the Holocaust— View course description in department listing on p. 610. –Staff

[Women, Gender, and Sexuality 215. Drink and Disorder in America]— View course description in department listing on p. 864.

[Women, Gender, and Sexuality 301. Western Feminist Thought]— View course description in department listing on p. 864. Prerequisite: C- or better in one other course in Women Gender and Sexuality.

[Women, Gender, and Sexuality 315. Women in America]— View course description in department listing on p. 864.