Engineering

Professor Mertens, Chair; Professors Ning and Palladino; Associate Professors Blaise∙∙ and Cheng∙∙; Lecturer Woodard; Visiting Assistant Professors Fixel, Ribarov, and Venkateswaran; Visiting Lecturer, Lab Coordinator and Design Instructor Kapralos

The mission of the Trinity College Engineering Department (ENGR) is to educate and inspire engineering students within the liberal arts environment so that they will possess the knowledge and vision to make significant contributions to the engineering profession and to society at large.

In keeping with this mission, the Engineering Department offers two four-year degrees in engineering: a bachelor of science in engineering, accredited by the Engineering Accreditation Commission of the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (http://www.abet.org), and a bachelor of arts in engineering science.

For more than a century, Trinity has offered a rigorous program in engineering within the liberal arts setting. Trinity engineering majors develop solid backgrounds in mathematics, physical science, and engineering science and design; receive a broad education that includes substantial study in the arts, humanities, and social sciences; and undertake a broad range of independent research projects and senior capstone design projects. Trinity engineering graduates have been accepted to leading engineering graduate schools, as well as professional programs in law, business, or medicine, and they have assumed leadership positions in business and industry. In addition to providing courses for the major, the department offers introductory engineering courses that engage non-majors in the study of current topics and issues in technology and introduce engineering problem-solving methods.

The Trinity engineering program affords many opportunities, both formal and informal, for close interaction among faculty and students. For example, students are encouraged to work with faculty in independent studies and senior capstone design projects, often in areas not available in formal courses. Members of the Trinity engineering faculty promote student awareness of professional issues and sponsor student chapters of the Association of Energy Engineers (AEE), the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), the National Society of Black Engineers (NSBE), and the Society of Women Engineers (SWE). The Trinity Engineering Advisory Committee (TEAC), a focus group of distinguished alumni and associates, sponsors summer internships, provides advice for choosing graduate schools and career placements, and conducts annual seminars focusing on the engineering profession and on modern engineering practice.

Trinity engineering students study in the Roy Nutt Mathematics, Engineering & Computer Science Center, a modern, high-technology facility. Engineering laboratories support instruction and student projects in microprocessor system design, telecommunications, digital signal and image processing, solid state electronics, integrated circuit design, biomechanics, fluid mechanics, solid mechanics, thermal science, materials science, digital logic design, robotics, and electrophysiology. The department offers students 24-hour access to labs and computer facilities. The latter include networked workstations dedicated to the design of electronic systems and data acquisition, digital signal and image processing, computer aided design, and advanced scientific computing. All computers are connected to a high-speed, campuswide network that offers students access to a wealth of computing resources and the Internet. Student design projects are also supported by a well-equipped machine shop.

The engineering major—The Trinity engineering degrees are based in the formal study of mathematics, physics, and chemistry, extended by completing engineering core courses in mechanics, material science, electrical circuits, and automatic control theory, and rounded out by a senior capstone design project. Engineering electives provide depth of study in the major. Every engineering major must demonstrate proficiency in computer-aided design, data acquisition, programming, and preparation of technical reports and presentations. To ensure significant exposure to the traditional liberal arts, each student must complete at least eight course credits in the arts, humanities, or social sciences and is expected to achieve depth of study in at least one subject area within these disciplines. Independent study or internship credits are not normally counted toward a degree in engineering. Students must obtain departmental approval before enrolling in courses to be taken at other institutions and counted toward the engineering major.

The bachelor of science in engineering

The B.S. in engineering degree, accredited by the Engineering Accreditation Commission of ABET, http://www.abet.org, requires completion of core mathematics, science, and engineering courses; engineering electives; and a yearlong senior capstone design project. Engineering core courses and electives provide exposure to the engineering sciences and serve as bridges linking basic mathematics and science to the creative process of engineering design. The senior capstone design project, which requires ENGR 483 and 484, engages students, working in close collaboration with their faculty advisers, in the process of creating an engineering system from inception to implementation and testing. This process requires students to consider such design criteria as economic and environmental costs and constraints, aesthetics, reliability, and complexity, and to write formal design specifications, evaluate alternatives, synthesize a system, and evaluate its performance. Firmly grounded in the traditional liberal arts, the B.S. in engineering program emphasizes a rigorous curriculum and incorporates newer fields and interdisciplinary approaches. The educational objectives of the B.S. in engineering program are the following:

Students pursuing the B.S. in engineering may choose elective course pathways in electrical, mechanical, computer, or biomedical engineering concentrations. Concentrations provide additional engineering course selections beyond basic mathematics, science, and engineering science, to satisfy an individual’s interest and prepare students to carry out the senior capstone design project. Students may design their own B.S. program in consultation with an engineering faculty adviser. Such programs must satisfy the basic mathematics and science requirements, the core engineering requirements, and include at least 13.5 Trinity course credits of engineering topics, including ENGR 483 and 484. The engineering faculty adviser works with each student in tailoring a program that includes an appropriate mix of engineering science and design.

The bachelor of arts in engineering science

The B.A. degree provides a flexible and interdisciplinary engineering experience for students who wish to broaden their learning horizons across disciplines in Trinity’s liberal arts curriculum. The B.A. is different from the ABET-accredited B.S. degree in that it requires integration of engineering studies with significant study in such cognate areas as economics, international studies, environmental science, neuroscience, or public policy and law. Consequently the B.A. provides a strong background for students who wish to pursue careers in public service, management, or entrepreneurship, for example. Its mission is to educate students able to develop and convey solutions to multidimensional problems that require scientific, technological, global, and social perspectives with the following objectives:

Engineering degree requirements—Specific requirements for the four-year bachelor’s degree programs in engineering are summarized below.

General requirements for engineering degrees—B.S. and B.A.

The Writing Intensive Part II requirement is fulfilled by one of the following courses: ENGR 212L, 221L, 232L, 301L, 307L, 308L, 323L, 362L, 431, or 484.

Bachelor of science in engineering

Beyond the general requirements listed above, students pursuing the B.S. in engineering must choose one of the options below. Completion of a concentration is noted on the final transcript.

Additional courses—Engineering majors are encouraged to select, in consultation with their faculty advisers, courses from the arts, humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences that address individual interests and broaden educational perspectives. Additional courses in physics, chemistry, biology, mathematics, and neuroscience enrich basic scientific understanding and address the special interests of students; such courses are highly recommended. Students intending to enter graduate study in engineering are advised to elect mathematics courses beyond the four-course basic mathematics sequence. Recommended areas include probability and statistics (MATH 305, 306), linear algebra (MATH 228), numerical analysis (MATH 309), and mathematical methods of physics (PHYS 300).

Bachelor of arts in engineering science

Environmental science pathway—The B.A. elective pathway in environmental science introduces engineering students to the fundamentals of environmental science fieldwork and methods, and provides a broad understanding of the natural environment and the impact of human behavior. It requires completion of a one-semester senior capstone design project with an environmental engineering component.

Requirements for the Environmental Science Pathway of B.A. in engineering science

Completion of the general requirements of B.A. in engineering science, with the following modifications:

AP/IBO Credit—AP/IBO credit is accepted, when equivalent, for the basic mathematics/science core and the arts/humanities/social science requirements for both the B.S. in engineering and the B.A. in engineering science degrees. Incoming students should consult with the department chair.

Honors—To be eligible for honors for the B.S. in engineering degree the student must: (1) Earn a grade point average of at least 3.5 in all engineering courses (not including independent studies); (2) earn an overall GPA of at least 3.3; (3) earn a grade of B+ or higher on the engineering senior capstone design project. To be eligible for honors for the B.A. in engineering science degree the student must: (1) Earn a grade point average of at least 3.5 in ALL math, science, and engineering courses that could fulfill a requirement for the B.A. (not including independent studies); (2) earn an overall GPA of at least 3.3; (3) earn a grade of B+ or higher in ENGR 483.

BEACON courses—Additional courses in biomedical engineering are available through the Biomedical Engineering Alliance and Consortium (BEACON), which includes the University of Hartford, the University of Connecticut, and the University of Connecticut Health Center. For details regarding days and times courses are offered, as well as course descriptions for each semester, consult the BEACON Web site (www.beaconalliance.org).

Study away—Engineering majors are encouraged to study abroad for one semester in the junior year. Students who plan to study abroad must contact the Engineering Department chair as early as possible, even before major declaration, to develop an individual four-year course plan.

Fall Term

221. Digital Circuits and Systems— An introduction to the design of digital computers. Course content includes: binary information representation, Boolean algebra, combinational circuits, sequential machines, flip-flops, registers, counters, memories, programmable logic, and computer organization. The laboratory emphasizes the design of digital networks. Lecture and laboratory. This course meets the Writing Part II requirement for the engineering major. Prerequisite: C- or better in Mathematics 126 or 131, or permission of instructor. (1.25 course credits) (NUM) (Enrollment limited) –Cheng

225. Mechanics I— This introductory course in mechanics primarily studies particle and rigid body statics. Topics include: force systems, rigid body equilibrium, analysis of structures, distributed forces, friction, and the method of virtual work. The latter part of the course studies dynamics, focusing on kinematics and kinetics of particles and introducing vibrations. Engineering design is incorporated in projects and homework assignments. Prerequisite: C- or better in Physics 131L or Physics 141L and Mathematics 132. (NAT) (Enrollment limited) –Palladino

232. Engineering Materials— A study of the nature, properties, and applications of materials in engineering design. An introduction to the field of material science with topics including metals, ceramics, polymers, and semiconductors combined with the unifying principle that engineering properties are a consequence of the atomic/molecular structure of materials. Lecture and laboratory. This course meets the Writing Part II requirement for the engineering major. C- or better in Chemistry 111 or equivalent, or consent of instructor. (1.25 course credits) (NAT) (Enrollment limited) –Kapralos, Mertens, Ribarov

307. Semiconductor Electronics I— Introductory semiconductor physics leading to the development of p-n junction theory. Development and application of device models necessary for the analysis and design of integrated circuits. Applications include digital circuits based on bipolar transistors and CMOS devices with particular emphasis on VLSI design considerations. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite: C- or better in Engineering 212L and 221L. (1.25 course credits) (WEB) (Enrollment limited) –Fixel

311. Electrophysiology of the Central Nervous System— This introductory course in cellular neurophysiology presents a modern and important body of knowledge in a highly integrated fashion drawing from the contributions of anatomists, physiologists, and electrical engineers. The basic biochemical properties of the membrane and sensory transduction, neural transmission, and synaptic interaction are considered in sequential order. Then the collective action of neurons in the form of compound electrical responses, and the electroencephalogram are discussed as means of understanding the neural circuitry involved in various behavioral modalities such as sleep-walking oscillation, pain modulation, etc. Particular emphasis is placed on experimental design. Ongoing research studies illustrating the concepts and techniques presented in the course will be discussed. Open to all junior and senior life science and physical science majors. (NAT) (Enrollment limited) –Blaise

312. Automatic Control Systems— Automatic control systems with sensors and feedback loops are ubiquitous in modern designs. The emergence of powerful microcontrollers in recent decades makes control system implementation much easier and encourages more innovation. This course provides a broad coverage of control system theory for engineering majors. Essential mathematical tools to study control systems are reviewed. Course topics include mathematical modeling, solutions to system design specifics, performance analysis, state variable and transition matrix, compensator design using root-locus, and PID controller design. Analysis is focused on linear control systems and broad applications. Linear system modeling is broadly applied to a variety of engineering systems. MATLAB and Simulink are used in assignments and team projects. Prerequisite: C- or better in Mathematics 231 and Engineering 212L. (NAT) (Enrollment limited) –Blaise

323. Microprocessor Systems— A hands-on study of design and implementation of microprocessor based systems. Students learn the steps of translating application specifics to design criteria, choosing essential hardware components, creating system schematics, wiring complete microprocessor systems, and developing application software. This course introduces major topics in computer system architecture, anatomy of CPU function, system bus structure, memory mapping, interrupt and latency, real-time control and multi-tasking. Assembly and C/C++ language programming is introduced and extensively used in laboratory assignments. Lectures and laboratory experiments are tightly coordinated to help students become familiar with various application aspects and design challenges concerning the embedded system. Prerequisite: C- or better in Engineering 221L or permission of instructor. (1.25 course credits) (WEB) (Enrollment limited) –Ning

325. Mechanics of Materials— Solid mechanics of deformable bodies, focusing on the internal effects of externally applied loads. Topics include elasticity theory, stress, strain and Young’s modulus, axial, torsional, and shear stresses, Mohr’s circle, analysis of beams, shafts, and columns subjected to axial, torsional, and combined loading. Students will also use computational analysis in the design of various combined loaded structures. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite: C- or better in Engineering 225. (1.25 course credits) (NAT) (Enrollment limited) –Mertens, Venkateswaran

337. Thermodynamics— Theoretical and applied classical engineering thermodynamics. Concepts presented include the first and second laws, properties of ideal and real substances, gas mixtures, closed and open systems, work and heat, reversible and irreversible processes, various thermodynamic cycles, and chemical reactions. Students will also complete a design and optimization of a power cycle as an individual project. Prerequisite: C- or better in Physics 131L or Physics 141L. (NAT) (Enrollment limited) –Venkateswaran

341. Architectural Drawing— Techniques of drawing required in architectural practice, including floor plans, perspectives, and shading techniques. (ART) (Enrollment limited) –Woodard

[353. Biomechanics]— This biomedical engineering core course applies principles of engineering mechanics in the examination of human physiological systems, such as the musculoskeletal and cardiovascular systems. Topics are drawn from biosolid and biofluid mechanics, including non-Newtonian fluid rheology and viscoelastic constitutive equations; and biodynamics, such as blood flow, respiratory mechanics, gait analysis and sport biomechanics. Students will be exposed to current applied biomechanics research in industry and medicine. Prerequisite: C- or better in Engineering 225. (NAT) (Enrollment limited)

399. Independent Study— Independent research supervised by a faculty member in an area of the student’s special interests. Submission of the special registration form, available in the Registrar’s Office, and the approval of the instructor and chairperson are required for enrollment. (0.5 - 1 course credit) –Staff

399. Independent Study - Robot Team— Independent research supervised by a faculty member for students participating on the Robot Team. Submission of the special registration form, available in the Registrar’s Office, and the approval of the instructor and chairperson are required for enrollment. (0.5 - 1 course credit) –Staff

401. Special Topics: Engineering Product Development— Students in this new course will engineer a product to bring to market. This will include identification of market need, engineering design and analysis of the product, business planning for “rollout”, protection of intellectual property, financial planning, and other aspects of product development necessary for entrepreneurs. Simple mathematics, computer-aided design, writing, and presentation skills will be required. The course is open to non-engineers who wish to participate in the design process. The final outcome of the course will be the completed engineering design for a patentable product and completion of an associated business plan to bring the product forward. Open only to juniors and seniors. This course is open to seniors and juniors only. (Enrollment limited) –Curtis, Douglas, Mertens

431. Experimental Design and Methods— This laboratory course requires junior and senior level mechanical engineering students to perform significant independent engineering design using skills acquired from a broad range of previous engineering courses. Simultaneously, it provides practical experience designing, testing, and using mechanical transducers for measuring displacement, velocity, acceleration, force, temperature, and pressure. Transducers are interfaced to electrical and computer subsystems for data collection and subsequent numerical analysis. CAD design, machining, and finite-element analysis of structures are introduced. Prerequisite: C- or better in Engineering 212L 225 or permission of instructor. (WEB) (Enrollment limited) –Palladino

466. Teaching Assistantship— Submission of the special registration form, available in the Registrar’s Office, and the approval of the instructor and chairperson are required for enrollment. (0.5 - 1 course credit) –Staff

483. Capstone Design I— A research and design project, supervised by a member of the engineering faculty, that integrates knowledge from mathematics, science, and engineering courses taken for the major. Students must choose an area of study, survey the literature, determine feasibility, complete the design, and plan for implementation. Working either individually or as members of a team, students will submit full project documentation to the faculty supervisor and deliver a final oral presentation to the department. Normally elected in the fall semester. May not be taken concurrently with Engineering 484. This course is open to senior engineering majors only. (NAT) (Enrollment limited) –Mertens

490. Research Assistantship— Submission of the special registration form, available in the Registrar’s Office, and the approval of the instructor and chairperson are required for enrollment. –Staff

Courses Originating in Other Departments

[Biology 140L. Biological Systems - Lab]— View course description in department listing on p. 301. For this optional laboratory class the student must also enroll in the lecture section.

Spring Term

110. Engineering Computation and Analysis— This course introduces computational engineering analysis using programming languages MATLAB, C/C++, and FORTRAN. Programming techniques for numerical analysis and simulation will be emphasized through utilization of loops, arrays, logic controls, functions, and procedures. Programming projects will include solving linear equations, designing games, image processing, estimation and prediction. (NUM) (Enrollment limited) –Venkateswaran

120. Introduction to Engineering Design: Mobile Robots— An introduction to the practice of engineering design. Students will complete a project that exposes them to the conceptualization, analysis, synthesis, testing, and documentation of an engineering system. Students will consider such design issues as modularity, testability, reliability, and economy, and they will learn to use computer-aided design tools. They will use laboratory instruments and develop hands-on skills that will support further project work. Only first-year students are eligible to enroll in this class. (NAT) (Enrollment limited) –Mertens

212. Linear Circuit Theory— The study of electric circuits in response to steady state, transient, sinusoidally varying, and aperiodic input signals. Basic network theorems, solutions of linear differential equations, LaPlace transform, frequency response, Fourier series, and Fourier transforms are covered. Both analysis and design approaches are discussed. Lecture and laboratory. This course meets the Writing Part II requirement for the engineering major. Prerequisite: C- or better in Physics 231L, and C- or better or concurrent registration in Mathematics 234. (1.25 course credits) (NAT) (Enrollment limited) –Fixel, Kapralos, Ning

226. Mechanics II— This course studies particle and rigid body dynamics. Topics include: kinematics and kinetics of both particles and rigid bodies, equations of motion in rectangular, normal/tangential and polar coordinate systems, rigid body translation, rotation and general plane motion, work and energy, momentum conservation, mass moment of inertia, and free, forced, and damped vibrations. Engineering design is incorporated in projects and homework assignments. Prerequisite: C- or better in Engineering 225. (NAT) (Enrollment limited) –Venkateswaran

232. Engineering Materials— A study of the nature, properties, and applications of materials in engineering design. An introduction to the field of material science with topics including metals, ceramics, polymers, and semiconductors combined with the unifying principle that engineering properties are a consequence of the atomic/molecular structure of materials. Lecture and laboratory. This course meets the Writing Part II requirement for the engineering major. C- or better in Chemistry 111 or equivalent, or consent of instructor. (1.25 course credits) (NAT) (Enrollment limited) –Kapralos, Staff

301. Signal Processing and Applications— This course presents digital signal processing (DSP) fundamentals and their practical applications through laboratory assignments. Topics include signal representations in continuous-time and discrete-time domains, discrete-time linear systems and their properties, the Fourier transform and fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm, the Z-transform, and digital filter design. This course includes laboratory experiments designed to reinforce DSP theory and to expose students to modern digital signal processing techniques, e.g., creating special audio effects, power spectrum estimation, encoding and decoding touch-tone signals, synthesizing musical instruments, frequency selective filtering, and image processing. Students gain a solid theoretical background in DSP and master hands-on applications using modern development tools. Prerequisite: C- or better in Mathematics 231 and Engineering 212L. (1.25 course credits) (WEB) (Enrollment limited) –Ning

[303. Analog and Digital Communication]— This course introduces basic topics in modern communication theory, including characterization of signals in the time and frequency domains, modulation theory, information coding, and digital data transmission. Topics focus on modulation techniques, including amplitude modulation, frequency modulation, and pulse code modulation. Basic probability theory and statistics are presented to provide the tools necessary for design applications, for instance when binary data is transmitted over noisy channels. Computer programming in a high-level language (e.g., MATLAB) is used to solve assignment problems. Prerequisite: C- or better in Engineering 212L and Mathematics 234 or permission of instructor. (NAT) (Enrollment limited)

308. Semiconductor Electronics II— A survey of digital and analog semiconductor circuits, focusing on the application of metal-oxide semiconductor and bipolar junction transistors in electronic design. The laboratory provides design experience with digital and analog circuits. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite: C- or better in Engineering 221L and 307L. (1.25 course credits) (WEB) (Enrollment limited) –Fixel

[314. VLSI Design Projects]— An introduction to very large scale integration (VLSI) technology and design. Topics include: characteristics of circuit elements including transistors and interconnects, physical limitations of scaling and voltage, and future trends. Laboratory exercises introduce modern computer-aided design tools for design entry, simulation, and layout. Students will complete a capstone project in which they design a complete VLSI chip suitable for fabrication. Prerequisite: C- or better in Engineering 221L and Engineering 212L, and permission of instructor (1.25 course credits) (Enrollment limited)

[316. Neural Engineering]— This introductory course uses an integrative and cross-disciplinary approach to survey basic principles and modern theories and methods in several important areas of neural engineering. Course topics include: neural prosthetics, neural stimulation, neurophysiology, neural signal detection, and analysis and computational neural networks. The practicalities of the emerging technology of brain-computer interface as well as other research topics in neural engineering will be discussed. Students will also have the opportunity to perform hands-on computer simulation and modeling of neural circuits and systems. Open to all junior and senior life science and physical science majors. (Enrollment limited)

342. Architectural Design— A study of architectural design concepts including space relationship, site planning, and use of materials. The students will prepare a three- dimensional model based on their own design. The course includes field trips. Prerequisite: C- or better in Engineering 341. (ART) (Enrollment limited) –Woodard

362. Fluid Mechanics— A study of fundamental concepts in fluid mechanics, including fluid physical properties, hydrostatics, fluid dynamics, conservation of mass and momentum, dimensional analysis, pipe flow, open channel flow, and aerodynamics. Lab experiments illustrate basic fluid dynamic concepts and introduce the student to pressure and flow instrumentation and empirical methods. Lab projects include subsonic wind-tunnel testing of aerodynamic models, mechanical instrumentation design and fabrication, and computer-aided piping design. Advanced concepts such as differential analysis (e.g., the Navier-Stokes equations) and solution of the resulting partial differential equations by numerical methods will be introduced. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite: C- or better in Engineering 225 and Mathematics 234 or permission of instructor. (1.25 course credits) (WEB) (Enrollment limited) –Palladino

372. Heat Transfer— An introduction to the physical phenomena associated with heat transfer. Analytical and empirical techniques to study heat transfer by conduction, forced and free convection, and radiation are presented. Heat equations developed for applied conduction are solved numerically via digital computer. Students will apply design and analysis of heat transfer systems that combine conduction, convection, and radiation. Prerequisite: C- or better in Engineering 212L or permission of instructor. (NAT) (Enrollment limited) –Venkateswaran

399. Independent Study— Independent research supervised by a faculty member in an area of the student’s special interests. Submission of the special registration form, available in the Registrar’s Office, and the approval of the instructor and chairperson are required for enrollment. (0.5 - 1 course credit) –Staff

401. Special Topics: Engineering Product Development— Students in this new course will engineer a product to bring to market. This will include identification of market need, engineering design and analysis of the product, business planning for “rollout”, protection of intellectual property, financial planning, and other aspects of product development necessary for entrepreneurs. Simple mathematics, computer-aided design, writing, and presentation skills will be required. The course is open to non-engineers who wish to participate in the design process. The final outcome of the course will be the completed engineering design for a patentable product and completion of an associated business plan to bring the product forward. Open only to juniors and seniors. This course is open to seniors and juniors only. (Enrollment limited) –Curtis, Douglas

[401. Special Topics: Gas Dynamics]— Thermodynamics and fluid dynamics of compressible gas flows with friction and heat transfer, and 1D and 2D shock waves. Application to nozzles, shock tubes and propulsion devises. (NAT) (Enrollment limited)

466. Teaching Assistantship— Submission of the special registration form, available in the Registrar’s Office, and the approval of the instructor and chairperson are required for enrollment. (0.5 - 1 course credit) –Staff

484. Capstone Design II— A forum for discussing the current literature especially as it relates to issues in engineering design. Each student is required to carry out a design project and to report regularly to the seminar. This course is open to senior engineering majors only. (WEB) (Enrollment limited) –Mertens

490. Research Assistantship— Submission of the special registration form, available in the Registrar’s Office, and the approval of the instructor and chairperson are required for enrollment. –Staff