Chemistry

Professor Curran, Chair; Scovill Professor of Chemistry Moyer, and Professor Prigodich; Associate Professors Church and Parr; Assistant Professors Brindle, Kovarik, and Krisch; Principal Lecturer Morrison; Laboratory Coordinator and Senior Lecturers Fitzgerald and Rau; Visiting Assistant Professor Thilakarathne; Visiting Lecturer Mathew

Chemistry is an interdisciplinary subject that deals with the composition, properties, and interactions of substances. It employs techniques from mathematics and physics and has applications in all of the sciences and in engineering. The discipline is typically viewed as having five major areas: analytical, biological, inorganic, organic, and physical. The chemistry major is structured to provide a balanced presentation of these areas. Students with special interest in biological chemistry should also consider the biochemistry major.

A chemistry major can lead to a variety of careers besides chemical research. These include the health professions, teaching, law, business, and management. A chemistry major is also an excellent preparation for a number of interdisciplinary areas including biochemistry, pharmacology, material science, nutrition and food chemistry, neuroscience, toxicology, forensic science, and art conservation.

Because of the structure of the chemistry curriculum, anyone interested in pursuing the study of chemistry, whether for a major or otherwise, should contact a department faculty member as soon as possible. The faculty member will aid in planning a schedule of courses that will permit the most direct and complete fulfillment of the intended goal.

The chemistry major—The following one-semester courses are required for the chemistry major: CHEM 211L, 212L, 309L, 310, 311L, 312L, 313, 314L, and one 400-level chemistry course; PHYS 231L; and MATH 132. A grade of at least C- must be obtained in all required courses. The Writing Intensive Part II requirement is fulfilled by one of the following courses: CHEM 309L or CHEM 311L. The senior exercise for the chemistry major is CHEM 309L.

The major as outlined above covers four of the five principal divisions of chemistry. The Chemistry Department, however, strongly urges those students who wish to prepare for graduate study in chemistry to take at least two 400-level chemistry courses. Students who wish to be certified by the American Chemical Society must complete two 400-level courses. These courses must be CHEM 404. Biological Chemistry and CHEM 425. Research (Laboratory) (minimum 1 credit).

The chemistry minor—The minor is an option for students who wish to pair an understanding of chemistry with their major at Trinity. The minor will introduce students to four major subdivisions in chemistry (analytical, inorganic, organic, and physical chemistry) with an option to also investigate biochemistry or environmental chemistry. The minor would provide a solid preparation for students aiming to pursue graduate work in areas that encompass chemistry, like molecular biology, materials science, neuroscience, and environmental science. In order to declare a minor in chemistry and to plan a course of study, a student should meet with and discuss their plans with any faculty member in the Chemistry Department. Students completing a chemistry or biochemistry major cannot claim completion of a chemistry minor.

The minor in chemistry consists of six courses in chemistry. Four of the courses are required; two of the courses are electives. The four required courses are CHEM 211L, CHEM 309L, CHEM 311L, and CHEM 313. The elective courses can be chosen from the following list:

If a course has a laboratory component, the laboratory is required for the minor. No course with a grade less than C- may be counted toward the minor.

Study away—Chemistry or biochemistry majors wishing to study away should plan well in advance of the semester or year they intend to go abroad. There are a variety of programs available and students should review the information provided by the Office of Study Away and schedule a meeting with Professor Parr, the study abroad adviser in the Chemistry Department. In recent years, our majors have studied in Australia and the British Isles.

In addition, students planning to study abroad who wish to have a course or courses counted toward partial fulfillment of the requirements for the chemistry or biochemistry major must present in writing a complete description of such courses for prior approval by the chair of the department. If approved, credit will be granted only after a satisfactory demonstration of completed work has been presented to the chair of the department. This must include a certified transcript from the institution.

Advanced Placement—Students with an AP Chemistry exam score of 4 or better will receive one course credit. This credit can be used to fulfill graduation requirements, but it cannot be used to fulfill any Chemistry Department prerequisite.

Teaching assistantships—Students wishing to serve as teaching assistants for chemistry courses must complete the appropriate form available from the registrar. All teaching assistantships will be graded on the pass/low pass/fail basis.

Honors—Honors will be awarded to students with a B+ average (3.33 or better) in all courses required for the major. A student must also complete at least one course credit of laboratory research (CHEM 425) approved by the Chemistry Department and earn a grade of at least B+.

Senior thesis—A senior thesis requires a substantial amount of laboratory work. Students contemplating writing a thesis should therefore consult with their research advisers in their junior year. A Chemistry Department thesis application form (available from the chemistry secretary) must be submitted to the chair of the department by the end of the first week of classes of the fall semester of their senior year. Chemistry faculty members will evaluate applications. Students whose thesis applications are approved will enroll in CHEM 499. Senior Thesis for 1 credit in the spring semester of their senior year and participate in the departmental seminar series. Students who enroll in CHEM 498. Senior Thesis Part I in the fall will be required to enroll in Thesis Part II in the spring.

Fall Term

111. Introductory Chemistry I and Laboratory— The study of the major concepts and theories required for an understanding of chemical phenomena. Principal topics include atomic and molecular structure, gas laws, stoichiometry, changes of state, chemical binding, solutions, and energetics in chemical reactions. Laboratory work includes quantitative measurements of solutions, synthesis, characterization of chemicals by physical and spectroscopic methods, molecular modeling, and student-assigned projects concentrating on quantitative measurements of solutions. Course intended primarily for students with little or no previous chemistry background. (1.25 course credits) (NAT) (Enrollment limited) –Fitzgerald, Kovarik, Mathew, Moyer Jr., Parr, Rau, Thilakarathne

[141. Chemistry in Context]— This course for non-science majors examines the chemistry that influences people’s lives and their choices. Topics will include air pollution, water pollution, energy and climate change, genetic engineering, food and nutrition. Reacting to the Past simulation games will be used with some of the topics to enhance student understanding of the choices, economics, and political considerations related to the chemical issues. Integrated laboratory exercises will also be used. This course is based on the text Chemistry in Context developed by the American Chemical Society. Not creditable to the chemistry or biochemistry majors. (GLB3) (Enrollment limited)

[155. Archaeological Chemistry]— This course is designed to introduce students to the application of chemical principles to the exploration and explication of archaeological issues. From the identification of ancient trading routes through pottery analysis to the elucidation of human interactions with the environment through investigation of human remains, this course will demonstrate the utility of chemistry and chemical methodologies to archaeological research. Not creditable to chemistry or biochemistry majors. (NAT) (Enrollment limited)

[170. Introduction to Forensic Chemistry]— This course provides an overview of the techniques used in the modern forensic laboratory for the analysis of common types of physical evidence encountered at crime scenes. The nature of physical evidence, the underlying chemical and physical principles of the scientific techniques employed in analyses, and the interpretation and evidentiary value of scientific results will be studied. This course will include lectures, demonstrations, and limited laboratory work. Not creditable to the chemistry or biochemistry majors. (NAT) (Enrollment limited)

211. Elementary Organic Chemistry I— A systematic study of the compounds of carbon, including methods of synthesis and correlation of chemical and physical properties with structure. Introduction to certain theoretical concepts. One laboratory per week emphasizing basic techniques and synthesis. Prerequisite: C- or better in Chemistry 112L. (1.25 course credits) (NAT) (Enrollment limited) –Curran, Mathew, Rau

309. Physical Chemistry I— A lecture and laboratory course concentrating on the development of the theory and application of thermodynamics and kinetics to chemical systems. Special consideration will be given to the theoretical treatment of solution chemistry (e.g., colligative properties, electrolyte theory). Prerequisite: C- or better in Mathematics 132 and Physics 231L. (1.25 course credits) (WEB) (Enrollment limited) –Krisch

311. Analytical Chemistry— A lecture and laboratory course covering the theory and practice of chemical analysis techniques in a quantitative manner. Detailed discussion of simple and complex acid-base equilibria, and complex buffer systems, will be presented, as will related solubility problems, complex metal-ligand solution equilibria, and oxidation reduction equilibria. Stoichiometry will also be addressed in a systematic way. These techniques will be applied in the laboratory, where accuracy and precision will be stressed. Emphasis will be placed on useful chemical reactions for analysis purposes. Latter stages of the course will deal with potentiometry, spectrometry, and chromatographic theory, both gas and liquid, as a separation tool with practical applications. Prerequisite: C- or better in Chemistry 112L. (1.25 course credits) (WEB) (Enrollment limited) –Church, Morrison

313. Principles of Inorganic Chemistry— A study of atomic structure, the chemical bond, and molecular and ionic structure of inorganic compounds, and an introduction to the principles of coordination chemistry. Prerequisite: C- or better in Chemistry 112L. (NAT) (Enrollment limited) –Parr

[399. Independent Study]— (0.5 - 1 course credit)

[404. Biological Chemistry]— A lecture seminar course focusing on the fundamental chemistry underlying biological phenomena. Examples from the current biochemical literature will be used. Prerequisite: C- or better in Chemistry 212L, or permission of instructor. (NAT) (Enrollment limited)

425. Research (Laboratory)— Students will conduct original laboratory research projects under the direction of an individual staff member. Students electing to pursue independent study of this type should plan on initiating work no later than the fall of the senior year, and should also plan on no less than two semesters of study with the completion of a final formal paper. Participation in the weekly Friday departmental seminar series is mandatory. Submission of the special registration form, available in the Registrar’s Office, and the approval of the instructor and chair are required for enrollment. (0.5 - 2 course credits) –Staff

466. Teaching Assistantship— Submission of the special registration form, available in the Registrar’s Office, and the approval of the instructor and chair are required for enrollment. (0.5 - 1 course credit) –Staff

498. Senior Thesis Part 1— (2 course credits) –Staff

Spring Term

112. Introductory Chemistry II and Laboratory— A continuation of Chemistry 111L with emphasis on chemical equilibria, electrochemistry, kinetics, and a presentation of the properties and reactions of selected elements. Laboratory work is devoted to the analysis of systems involving the principles and concepts studied in the classroom. To the greatest extent possible, laboratory and lecture section assignments shall remain the same as for Chemistry 111L. Prerequisite: C- or better in Chemistry 111L. (1.25 course credits) (NAT) (Enrollment limited) –Fitzgerald, Mathew, Moyer Jr., Parr

[135. Chemistry: The Science for All Seasons]— A non-majors course which will explore the chemical principles of everyday life based on a seasonal categorization. Students will engage in discussions and integrated laboratory exercises on topics such as spectroscopy (sunscreen summer; color changes in leaves fall), thermodynamics (Hand warmers winter, “Ice-melt” winter), common chemical reactions (weed-killer- spring, pool chemistry summer), and biochemical systems (Vitamin D: summer; fire-flies fall). (NAT) (Enrollment limited)

155. Archaeological Chemistry— This course is designed to introduce students to the application of chemical principles to the exploration and explication of archaeological issues. From the identification of ancient trading routes through pottery analysis to the elucidation of human interactions with the environment through investigation of human remains, this course will demonstrate the utility of chemistry and chemical methodologies to archaeological research. Not creditable to chemistry or biochemistry majors. (NAT) (Enrollment limited) –Parr

[160. Introduction to Textile Science]— This lecture and demonstration course will present an introduction to classification and identification of natural, regenerated, and synthetic fibers; construction of woven, non-woven, and knitted fabrics; application and design of finishes and colors; and evaluation methods for textiles. This course includes several field trips. Students should come away from this course with a solid background for the selection, use, and care of textiles and a recognition and appreciation for the science and technology associated with the textile industry.Not creditable to the chemistry or biochemistry majors. (NAT) (Enrollment limited)

170. Introduction to Forensic Chemistry— This course provides an overview of the techniques used in the modern forensic laboratory for the analysis of common types of physical evidence encountered at crime scenes. The nature of physical evidence, the underlying chemical and physical principles of the scientific techniques employed in analyses, and the interpretation and evidentiary value of scientific results will be studied. This course will include lectures, demonstrations, and limited laboratory work. Not creditable to the chemistry or biochemistry majors. (NAT) (Enrollment limited) –Morrison

212. Elementary Organic Chemistry II— A continuation of the lecture and laboratory study begun in Chemistry 211L. Prerequisite: C- or better in Chemistry 211L. (1.25 course credits) (NAT) (Enrollment limited) –Brindle, Curran, Mathew, Rau

230. Environmental Chemistry— This course will cover basic chemical concepts, such as polarity, volatility, and solubility, as they relate to chemical behavior in the environment. The ability to predict environmental behavior from chemical structure will be emphasized. Human and environmental toxicology will be discussed, and specific pollutants will be examined. Case studies will be used to illustrate concepts. The laboratory will emphasize techniques used for environmental analysis. Prerequisite: C- or better in Chemistry 111L and 112L, or permission of instructor. (NAT) (Enrollment limited) –Krisch

230L. Environmental Chemistry Lab— This course will cover basic chemical concepts, such as polarity, volatility and solubility, as they relate to chemical behavior in the environment. The ability to predict environmental behavior from chemical structure will be emphasized. Human and environmental toxicology will be discussed, and specific pollutants will be examined. Case studies will be used to illustrate concepts. The laboratory will emphasize techniques used for environmental analysis. Prerequisite: C- or better in Chemistry 111L and 112L, or permission of instructor. (0.25 course credit) (Enrollment limited) –Krisch

310. Physical Chemistry II— A comprehensive treatment of quantum chemistry, molecular structure, and chemical statistics. Subjects covered are designed to emphasize applications to chemical systems. Prerequisite: C- or better in Mathematics 132 or 142, and Physics 231. (NAT) (Enrollment limited) –Krisch

312. Instrumental Methods of Chemical Analysis— A lecture and laboratory course in the principles and practice of the use of instruments for quantitative and qualitative chemical measurements. Theory, optimization, and application of instrumentation for spectroscopic, electrochemical, spectrometric, and hyphenated methods of analysis are presented. Applications of computer methods of analysis as well as analog and digital manipulation of electrical signals are presented. Prerequisite: C- or better in Chemistry 311L. (1.25 course credits) (NAT) (Enrollment limited) –Kovarik

314. Descriptive Inorganic Chemistry— A lecture and laboratory course devoted to the systematic study of transition elements and main group elements, their compounds, and reactions. Topics of current interest in inorganic chemistry will be discussed. Prerequisite: C- or better in Chemistry 313. (1.25 course credits) (NAT) (Enrollment limited) –Moyer Jr.

316. Physical Biochemistry— A comprehensive survey of the physical methods used in the investigation of biological systems, and the models and underlying theory developed to account for observed behavior. The physical and chemical properties of amino acids, peptides, proteins, purines, pyrimidines, and nucleic acids will be examined from spectroscopic, thermodynamic, and kinetic viewpoints. Prerequisite: C- or better in Mathematics 132 or 142, and Physics 231. (1.25 course credits) (NAT) (Enrollment limited) –Thilakarathne

[399. Independent Study]— (0.5 - 1 course credit)

404. Biological Chemistry— A lecture seminar course focusing on the fundamental chemistry underlying biological phenomena. Examples from the current biochemical literature will be used. Prerequisite: C- or better in Chemistry 212L, or permission of instructor. (NAT) (Enrollment limited) –Kovarik

[406. Advanced Organic Chemistry II]— Normally (but not restricted to) topics in organic synthesis. Emphasis on recent developments. Prerequisite: C- or better in Chemistry 212L, or concurrent enrollment. (NAT) (Enrollment limited)

425. Research (Laboratory)— Students will conduct original laboratory research projects under the direction of an individual staff member. Students electing to pursue independent study of this type should plan on initiating work no later than the fall of the senior year, and should also plan on no less than two semesters of study with the completion of a final formal paper. Participation in the weekly Friday departmental seminar series is mandatory. Submission of the special registration form, available in the Registrar’s Office, and the approval of the instructor and chair are required for enrollment. (0.5 - 2 course credits) –Staff

466. Teaching Assistantship— Submission of the special registration form, available in the Registrar’s Office, and the approval of the instructor and chair are required for enrollment. (0.5 - 1 course credit) –Staff

499. Senior Thesis— Submission of the special registration form, available in the Registrar’s Office, after receiving approval for the thesis project from the Chemistry Department, is required. (2 course credits) –Staff