Biology

Associate Professor Archer, Chair; Thomas S. Johnson Distinguished Professor of Biology Blackburn, Professors Dunlap (acting chair, fall 2015), Fleming, and Morrison, Charles A. Dana Professor of Biology Schneider∙∙; Associate Professors Foster, Guardiola-Diaz, and Smedley; Principal Lecturer and Laboratory Coordinator O’Donnell; Lecturer and Laboratory Coordinator Fournier

Biology is the study of the unity and diversity of life. Modern biology is a field of great breadth that includes such disciplines as molecular biology, genetics, development, physiology, zoology, botany, ecology, and evolutionary biology. As an interdisciplinary field, biology draws upon chemistry, mathematics, and physics, while intersecting with such other fields as neuroscience, psychology, anthropology, philosophy, and paleontology.

The biology major is constructed to provide students with a broad background in the field while offering opportunities for concentration in particular areas. The department has excellent facilities, and majors are strongly encouraged to conduct independent research with a faculty member. A major in biology can lead to a career in research, teaching, or the health professions, as well as in law, government, business, or management. The major also prepares students for further study in such interdisciplinary fields as biochemistry, nutrition, neuroscience, oceanography, and environmental science.

Students who are considering a major in biology should consult a member of the Biology Department as early in their undergraduate career as possible. The faculty member will help plan a sequence of courses appropriate for the student’s particular interests and needs. If the biology major is to be used as preparation for one of the health-related professions, the student should consult with a member of the Health Professions Advising Committee (see the advising section in the Bulletin).

The biology major—Students have two options for majoring in biology, leading respectively to the bachelor of science degree and the bachelor of arts degree. Both degrees offer students breadth and depth in the field. The bachelor of science degree is recommended to undergraduates who want the strongest background in the discipline and to students who are interested in pursuing a graduate degree in the biological sciences. The bachelor of arts degree offers a level of flexibility and is appropriate for students with plans that do not necessarily include graduate school. Either the B.S. or B.A. degree is appropriate for students aspiring to health professions schools.

General requirements for the B.S. and B.A.

Course requirements for a major in biology include nine courses from the Department of Biology, plus at least three cognate courses in chemistry and mathematics. No course with a grade less than C- may be counted toward the major.

The core sequence of biology courses is as follows:

Required cognate courses include CHEM 111L and 112L. Introductory Chemistry I and II and one of the following courses in quantitative methods:

Incoming students with interests in the life sciences ideally should enroll in BIOL 182L and CHEM 111L in the fall semester, followed by BIOL 183L and CHEM 112L in the spring semester. If necessary, students who have taken CHEM 111L may enter BIOL 183L in the spring semester and take BIOL 182L the following fall semester.

BIOL 182L and 183L are required for most upper-level courses in the biological sciences.

Bachelor of science in biology

Beyond the general requirements outlined above, candidates for the bachelor of science degree are expected to take seven biology courses (at least four with labs), plus one additional cognate course in the physical sciences as described.

The seven additional biology courses include BIOL 224. Genetics, plus one course each from Groups I, II, and IV, plus three other biology courses chosen from any of the groups. Students who wish to use Research in Biology as one of their nine majors courses must either take two semesters of BIOL 419 or 425, or one semester of either with concurrent enrollment in BIOL 403 or 404. Research Seminar.

Group I: Biodiversity—Group I offerings provide exposure to the biology of organisms other than vertebrates, groups that comprise the vast majority of all life. These courses employ an integrative approach with an emphasis on biodiversity.

Group II: Cellular/molecular basis of life—Group II offerings will ensure that students gain competence in the cellular and molecular processes that are fundamental to life.

Group III: Electives in biology—Group III courses are intended to allow students the opportunity to explore other areas of biology in detail.

Group IV: Capstone courses—Group IV courses provide students with a culminating experience in the major, and satisfy the senior exercise requirement. These courses also satisfy the Writing Intensive Part II requirement for the major.

Required cognate course—In addition to biology and cognate courses listed above, students must take at least one course in organic chemistry (CHEM 211L) or introductory physics (PHYS 101L or PHYS 141L or PHYS 131L).

Students are strongly recommended to take two semesters in organic chemistry and two semesters in introductory physics. While not required for the major, these are considered to be essential for students who are interested in the health professions or in continuing their education at the graduate level.

Bachelor of arts in biology

Beyond the “general requirements” (BIOL 182 and 183, CHEM 111 and 112, and a course in quantitative methods, as listed above), candidates for the bachelor of arts degree are expected to take seven biology courses (at least four with labs). These seven courses should include at least one course each from Groups I, II, and IV, as listed above.

One of the following courses may be used as an elective toward the bachelor of arts degree if taken before completion of the introductory sequence of BIOL 182 and 183:

Optional courses of potential interest—Students also are encouraged to take courses in other departments and programs that have a relationship to the biological sciences. Examples of such courses are as follows:

Biology major concentrations

Depth option—Students may opt to fulfill a concentration in a particular area of biology by completing four electives within any one of the groups listed below. This concentration will be indicated in the student’s transcript (e.g., ”Biology: Biomedical Sciences Concentration”). Transfer courses may be applied toward a concentration as approved by the department chair. Four courses fulfill a concentration in one area; students are limited to selecting one concentration.

Biomedical Sciences concentration: Organismal and Evolutionary Biology concentration:
Cellular/Molecular Biology concentration: Field Biology and Ecology concentration:

The biology minor—The minor in biology is an option for students who are not majoring in the subject but who wish to enhance their biological background in conjunction with other academic interests. The minor offers students the opportunity to explore one or more aspects of biology or to sample broadly from across the departmental curriculum. A minor in the subject also may help prepare students for postgraduate careers in areas related to the life sciences, including environmental consulting, scientific publishing, environmental law, nutrition, science teaching, and allied health fields. In order to declare a minor in biology and to plan a course of study, a student should meet with the chair of the Biology Department.

The minor in biology consists of five courses in the biological sciences (including at least four with labs). These five courses include (a) BIOL 182L and 183L (which has a prerequisite of CHEM 111) and (b) three departmental electives (at least two with labs). Eligible departmental electives include all 200-, 300-, and 400-level biology courses, as well as NESC 201. Principles of Neuroscience and NESC 402. Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology. In addition, students may apply one course from the following list toward a biology minor:

Two semesters of BIOL 425 Research in Biology (Laboratory) may serve as one lab course. Only one of the five biology courses can be a transfer credit except in circumstances approved by the department. No course with a grade less than C- may be counted toward the minor.

Advanced Placement—Students who receive a score of 4 or 5 on the Advanced Placement examination in biology may receive one course credit toward graduation. This course credit may not be counted toward the biology major, nor does it exempt students from any of the courses required for the major.

Teaching assistantships—Each year, by invitation, certain students will be given the opportunity to function as teaching assistants. Those accepting will work closely with a faculty member in the presentation of a departmental course. The primary responsibilities of student assistants will be instructional. Students taking part in this program can receive course credit by registering in BIOL 466 (not creditable to the biology major).

Research in biology—Majors in biology are provided the opportunity to carry out research through direct laboratory work, fieldwork, or library research under the direction of an individual faculty member. Seniors and those students using a laboratory or library research course to satisfy the Group IV requirement must simultaneously enroll in the biology research seminar (BIOL 403 or 404). Because of the nature of laboratory work and fieldwork, students should be willing to devote at least two semesters to research. Library work is to be done on the semester basis and will involve the preparation of a paper dealing with a significant phenomenon or issue in the field. Those who wish to pursue this work should seek permission from the sponsoring faculty member no later than December 1 if the work is to be initiated in the spring term or no later than May 1 if the work is to be initiated in the fall term. Students are urged to make their arrangements as early as possible in the preceding semester. Ideally, students interested in summer research should contact faculty members in the preceding fall semester.

Non-majors—All students who wish to participate in departmental courses are welcome to enroll in any of these courses as long as they satisfy the listed prerequisites, or after obtaining permission from the faculty member teaching a course.

Courses at other institutions—Students who wish to receive major credit for course work at other institutions should submit to the department chair the name of the institution and the number, title, and catalogue description of the course. This information must be submitted in writing before the work is initiated and formal permission must be granted before the course can be credited toward the major at Trinity. Upon approval, up to three biology courses taken away from Trinity may be counted toward the biology major. Under special circumstances, students may petition the department for permission to transfer additional courses; transfer students wishing to transfer more than three courses should petition at the time of admission.

Study away—While there are many general programs of study abroad for Trinity students, biology majors interested in foreign study should be aware of programs designed particularly for serious biological study outside the College. Examples of suitable programs in which Trinity students participate regularly are listed below:

Honors—Students seeking honors must apply for the honors program in biology. This application must be in written form and should be submitted to the chair of biology before the sixth week of classes of a student’s sixth semester. The biology faculty will act upon each application. Students seeking honors must have completed five biology courses that count toward the major by the end of their fifth semester, and their grade point average in these courses must be at least 3.3 (B+). In addition, they must demonstrate in their work a scholarly intent. Students not qualifying for the honors program after five semesters may be invited by the faculty to enter the program at a later time.

After acceptance into the honors program, students must maintain a GPA of 3.3 in their biology courses. In addition, they must perform research in biology (BIOL 419 or BIOL 425) for two semesters, including participation in BIOL 403 and 404. The honors program for a student culminates in an honors thesis (BIOL 497), an oral presentation to the biology faculty, and a poster presentation at our annual science symposium. Upon completion of these requirements, the faculty of biology will vote to award honors to those candidates who are deemed qualified. Under exceptional circumstances, certain research students not enrolled in the honors program, may, by producing particularly distinguished work, be considered for honors by the faculty of biology.

Fall Term

120. Genes, Clones, and Biotechnology— This course will focus on the fundamental concepts of genetics and human reproduction upon which current biotechnologies are based. Topics will include patterns of heredity, the molecular biology of gene structure and function, the manipulation and analysis of DNA, genes and disease, mutation, reproduction and embryonic development. The application of this knowledge as it is used in genetic screening, gene therapy, forensic medicine, embryo cloning, the production of transgenic organisms, and other biotechnologies will be discussed. In addition, the social, legal, and ethical ramifications of these technologies will be considered. Not creditable to the Bachelor of Science degree in Biology. (NAT) (Enrollment limited) –Fleming

[140. Biological Systems]— This course explores the biology of animals (including humans) from standpoints of anatomy, physiology, and evolution. We shall consider basics of cell biology, genetics, development, and structure and function of the major organ systems (e.g., digestive, respiratory, excretory, nervous, endocrine, and reproductive systems). Evolutionary processes that have yielded animal diversity will also be explored. Laboratory activities include anatomical dissection, as well as explorations of microscopy, physiology, behavior, population genetics, and molecular biology. Not creditable to the Bachelor of Science degree in Biology. This course fulfills the biology course requirement for students majoring in psychology and engineering. (NAT) (Enrollment limited)

[140L. Biological Systems - Lab]— This course explores the biology of animals (including humans) from standpoints of anatomy, physiology, and evolution. We shall consider basics of cell biology, genetics, development, and structure and function of the major organ systems (e.g., digestive, respiratory, excretory, nervous, endocrine, and reproductive systems). Evolutionary processes that have yielded animal diversity will also be explored. Laboratory activities include anatomical dissection, as well as explorations of microscopy, physiology, behavior, population genetics, and molecular biology. Not creditable to the biology major. This course fulfills the biology course requirement for students majoring in psychology and engineering. For this optional laboratory class the student must also enroll in the lecture section. (0.25 course credit) (Enrollment limited)

[141. Global Perspectives on Biodiversity and Conservation]— This lecture and discussion course focuses on the current biodiversity crisis. We will discuss biological diversity and where it is found and how it is monitored, direct and indirect values of biodiversity, and consequences of biodiversity loss. Topics of discussion will also include the problems of small populations, the politics of endangered species, species invasions and extinctions, and the role of humans in these processes, design and establishment of reserves, captive breeding, and the role that the public and governments play in conserving biological diversity. Not creditable to the Bachelor of Science degree in Biology. (GLB3) (Enrollment limited)

182. Evolution of Life— This course will provide an introduction to life on Earth from an evolutionary perspective. Through lecture and discussion, we will examine evolutionary principles, inheritance, biodiversity, physiological adaptations, and ecology. The laboratory will provide the opportunity to explore biological concepts through observation, experimental design, and analysis. (1.25 course credits) (NAT) (Enrollment limited) –Blackburn, Dunlap, Fournier, Morrison, O’Donnell, Schneider

206. Histophysiology— This course provides a comprehensive survey of the structure, composition, and function of tissues and their cellular and non-cellular components. Particular emphasis is placed on structural organization and structural-functional relationships of mammal tissues, with comparisons to other vertebrates. Recent microscopic research conducted at Trinity will also be considered. In the laboratory, students learn fundamentals of cell and tissue morphology through light microscopy and examination of electron micrographs. A background in general or organic chemistry is useful. Prerequisite: C- or better in Biology 182L and Biology 183L, or Permission of Instructor. (1.25 course credits) (NAT) (Enrollment limited) –Blackburn

[211. Electron Microscopy]— Electron microscopes are sophisticated research instruments that allow examination of specimens at very high magnification (up to 250,000x). Thus, they provide valuable information about cell structure and function and serve as diagnostic tools in human medicine. In this course, students learn how to prepare specimens for electron microscopic study, to use EMs to examine and digitally photograph them, and to interpret the resultant images. The theory behind these techniques will be considered, as will application of electron microscopy to research questions and clinical issues. Prerequisite: C- or better in Biology 182 or Biology 183 and consent of instructor (1.25 course credits) (Enrollment limited)

[215. Botany]— An introductory study of the structure, function, development, metabolism, reproduction, dispersal, ecology, and evolution of plants. Plant/animal interactions and co-evolution will be considered. Laboratory exercises and field work are designed to involve students with important concepts discussed in lecture. Prerequisite: C- or better in Biology 182L, or permission of instructor. (1.25 course credits) (NAT) (Enrollment limited)

224. Genetics— A study of the basic principles of genetics including the transmission and organization of the genetic material in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, the molecular biology of nucleic acids and information transfer, mutation and mutagenesis, and gene regulation. Laboratory will include techniques of genetic analysis in plants, fungi, and Drosophila. Selected experiments in cytogenetics, molecular genetics, and the genetics of bacteria and bacteria phage. This course may be taken without laboratory by registering for only Biology 224-01. Prerequisite: C- or better in Biology 182L and Biology 183L, or Permission of Instructor. (NAT) (Enrollment limited) –Fleming

224L. Genetics Laboratory— A study of the basic principles of genetics including the transmission and organization of the genetic material in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, the molecular biology of nucleic acids and information transfer, mutation and mutagenesis, and gene regulation. Laboratory will include techniques of genetic analysis in plants, fungi, and Drosophila. Selected experiments in cytogenetics, molecular genetics, and the genetics of bacteria and bacteria phage. Prerequisite: C- or better in BIOL 224-01, or concurrent enrollment. (0.25 course credit) (Enrollment limited) –Fleming

[226. Recombinant DNA Technology]— Human gene therapy, genetically-engineered crop plants, and transgenic mice are all possible because of the powerful techniques developed to manipulate nucleic acids and proteins. This course will introduce you to the fundamental methods at the heart of this technology—DNA isolation, restriction digestion, DNA recombination, Southern blotting, and DNA library screening. The emphasis will be on the laboratory experience, with lectures covering current examples of research using the techniques described. Prerequisite: C- or better in Biology 182L and Biology 183L, or Permission of Instructor. (1.25 course credits) (NAT) (Enrollment limited)

233. Conservation Biology— This lecture and discussion course focuses on the science and theory of this interdisciplinary field. Biological concepts examined include biodiversity and the definition of species, patterns of species vulnerability, population dynamics of small populations, extinctions and invasions, rarity, metapopulations, conservation genetics, reserve design, captive breeding, endangered species, habitat fragmentation, and population recovery programs. Interactions between biology, human concerns regarding resource management, and the political process will also be considered. Prerequisite: C- or better in Biology 182L, or permission of instructor. (NAT) (Enrollment limited) –Morrison

244. Biology of Infectious Disease— The infectious disease process is multifactorial. In order to understand how bacteria and viruses cause disease, it is necessary to examine the delicate relationship that exists between the host and the infectious organism. This course will focus on understanding the human immune system in health and in disease, as well as the mechanisms employed by microorganisms to escape the immune response. A stepwise approach to the infectious process will be taken in this lecture- and discussion-based course, beginning with initial encounter between the host and the infectious agent and ending with the transmission of the agent to a new host. Although human disease will be the main focus, some infectious agents of plants and other animals will also be discussed. Prerequisite: C- or better in Biology 182L and Biology 183L, or Permission of Instructor. (GLB3) (Enrollment limited) –Foster

250. Genomics Research Program Seminar— This course serves to transition students from their focused first year experience to the broader field of biological research, both at Trinity and beyond. Students will read primary research literature from the full range of the life sciences - from molecules to ecosystems - and discuss common themes and problems in biological research. Students will also interact with all faculty and upper-level students conducting biological research at Trinity and will attend presentations of guest-lecturers from other colleges and universities. Prerequisite: C- or better in FYSM 170 (Phage Hunters), and Biology 175. (0.5 course credit) (NAT) (Enrollment limited) –Blackburn

317. Biochemistry— A study of the molecular reactions that sustain life. Topics include biomolecule structure and function, enzyme kinetics, bioenergetics, and integration and regulation of metabolic pathways. The laboratory exercises include chromatography, electrophoresis, spectroscopy and bioinformatic analysis. Prerequisite: C- or better in Chemistry 212L, Biology 182L and Biology 183L. (1.25 course credits) (NAT) (Enrollment limited) –Guardiola-Diaz

319. Animal Physiology— This course examines the physiological mechanisms underlying four fundamental functions—movement, sensation, feeding, and reproduction. How do physiological systems operate to enable organisms to live in drastically different habitats? What are the common cellular and molecular mechanisms shared by diverse animals? The laboratory will consist of several preparations examining developmental, sensory, endocrine, and muscle physiology, followed by more detailed, independent investigations of one of these preparations. Prerequisite: C- or better in Biology 182L and Biology 183L, or Permission of Instructor. (1.25 course credits) (NAT) (Enrollment limited) –Dunlap

333. Ecology— A study of the adaptations of organisms to their environment and of the interrelationships among organisms that determine the structure and attributes of natural populations and biological communities. Field trips and laboratory exercises use sampling methods and statistical techniques to analyze the response of organisms to their physical environment, selected population phenomena, and different natural communities. Several field trips are required during the term. It is recommended that students take Biology 215L and 222L before enrolling, but they are not prerequisites. This course has a community learning component. Prerequisite: C- or better in Biology 182L, or permission of instructor. (1.25 course credits) (NAT) (Enrollment limited) –Smedley

399. Independent Study— Independent research supervised by a faculty member in an area of the student’s special interests. Submission of the special registration form, available in the Registrar’s Office, and the approval of the instructor are required for enrollment. (0.5 - 1 course credit) –Staff

403. Research Seminar— Students engaged in laboratory or field research, as well as honors candidates conducting library research, will meet with the biology faculty for oral presentations and critical discussions of journal papers, research plans, and research progress. Concurrent enrollment in either Biology 419 or 425 is required. This course is open to seniors only. (0.5 course credit) (NAT) (Enrollment limited) –Foster

419. Research in Biology (Library)— Students will conduct library research projects under the direction of an individual faculty member. Students electing this type of independent study should plan on a full semester culminating with the completion of a final formal paper. Seniors and those using library research to satisfy the Group IV requirement must simultaneously enroll in the Research Seminar (Biology 403). Submission of the special registration form, available in the Registrar’s Office, and the approval of the instructor are required for enrollment. (0.5 course credit) (NAT) –Staff

425. Research in Biology (Laboratory)— Students will conduct original laboratory research projects under the direction of an individual faculty member. Students electing to pursue independent study of this type should plan on initiating work no later than the fall of the senior year, and should also plan on no less than two semesters of study with a final formal report to be submitted to the department, as well as a poster at the annual Science Symposium. Seniors and those using laboratory research to satisfy the Group IV requirement must simultaneously enroll in the Research Seminar (Biology 403). Submission of the special registration form, available in the Registrar’s Office, and the approval of the instructor are required for enrollment. (0.5 course credit) (NAT) –Staff

446. Bacterial Pathogenesis— This seminar will examine the intricate relationship between a bacterial pathogen and a mammalian host. Bacteria have evolved a wide array of virulence factors that allow them to circumvent host defense mechanisms and cause disease. Many of these virulence factors have been identified and studied at the molecular level. Additionally, a study of the host immune system is essential for an understanding of the ability of microorganisms to cause disease. The molecular biology of bacterial virulence as well as the host response to pathogens will be examined through readings and discussions of the primary literature. Prerequisite: C- or better in Biology 183L and one of the following: Biology 227L, or Biology 308L, or Biology 317L, or permission of instructor (WEB) (Enrollment limited) –Foster

[456. Biology of Communication]— This integrative course will examine the development, neurobiology, physiology, ecology, and evolution of communication in vertebrate animals, including humans. We will discuss how communication signals (e.g., bird songs, human speech, olfactory communication chemicals) are generated by animals, how these signals travel through the environment and are perceived by other animals, and how, in turn, they modify the behavior of the receiving animal. Human disorders such as deafness will be examined as a means of understanding plasticity in communication systems. Emphasis will be on reading and discussing articles from the primary literature. The laboratory section will include both lab and field experiments in which we record and analyze signals, examine hormonal effects on communication behaviors, and observe behavioral responses to playbacks of communication signals. This course includes a community learning component. This course has a community learning component. Prerequisite: C- or better in Biology 319L or Neuroscience 201. (1.25 course credits) (WEB) (Enrollment limited)

466. Teaching Assistantship— Students who have been invited to serve as teaching assistants will register for this course. Submission of the special registration form, available in the Registrar’s Office, and the approval of the instructor are required for enrollment. See paragraph on teaching assistants in the description of the major. Not creditable to the major. (0.5 course credit) –Staff

468. Marine Phytogeography— An advanced-level seminar on the historical and recent biological, physical, and artificial factors controlling the distribution of marine organisms, particularly seaweeds. Class discussions focus on primary phytogeographical literature. An investigative search and term paper on the known distribution of a marine alga is required. Prerequisite: C- or better in Biology 336L or permission of instructor. (WEB) (Enrollment limited) –Schneider

[473. Sensory Biology]— This integrative course examines the cell biology, development, physiology and ecology of the senses (vision, audition, olfaction, taste and touch). We will discuss the complex ways humans gather, filter and process sensory information; and how animals sense the world quite differently. Prerequisite: C- or better in Biology 182, and Biology 183L, and Biology 319L or Neuroscience 201, or permission of instructor. (1 - 1.25 course credits) (WEB) (Enrollment limited)

Spring Term

[111. Winter Ecology]— Winters in Connecticut are cold and snowy, yet life persists in this stark environment. Through this ecology course we will explore a variety of amazing strategies by which animals and plants meet winter’s challenges. In addition to lectures and discussions, during our regular class time on certain weeks we will have required field labs providing firsthand experience with winter ecology. The only prerequisites are a sense of curiosity for the natural world, warm winter clothing, and the ability to understand basic quantitative material. Not creditable to the Bachelor of Science degree in Biology. (NAT) (Enrollment limited)

[116. Biogeography]— All species have been distributed to certain environments on Earth, some survived, others did not. This course will study the historical and recent dispersal mechanisms as well as environmental pressures that allow for plants and animal distribution patterns. Evolutionary mechanisms leading to adaptation and recent alien invasions into susceptible environments will be emphasized. Grades will be based upon several exams, short papers, a term paper, and classroom discussions. Not creditable to the Bachelor of Science degree in Biology. (GLB3) (Enrollment limited)

[120. Genes, Clones, and Biotechnology]— This course will focus on the fundamental concepts of genetics and human reproduction upon which current biotechnologies are based. Topics will include patterns of heredity, the molecular biology of gene structure and function, the manipulation and analysis of DNA, genes and disease, mutation, reproduction and embryonic development. The application of this knowledge as it is used in genetic screening, gene therapy, forensic medicine, embryo cloning, the production of transgenic organisms, and other biotechnologies will be discussed. In addition, the social, legal, and ethical ramifications of these technologies will be considered. Not creditable to the Bachelor of Science degree in Biology. (NAT) (Enrollment limited)

122. Toxicology— Toxicology is often described as the study of poisons This course will outline the principles of toxicology (absorption, distribution, biotransformation and excretion) , focusing on toxicity to humans. We will examine common substances that could, at some dose, be toxic, exploring dose-response relationships, susceptible populations, risk assessment and the precautionary principle. The biological effect of common toxins such as lead, gasoline, household cleaners, and particulate air pollution, but also compounds such as alcohol, pain relievers, caffeine, over-the-counter medications and drugs of abuse will be discussed. Case studies will be used to illustrate concepts. Not creditable to the Bachelor of Science degree in Biology. (NAT) (Enrollment limited) –Draper

124. Genes and Human Disease— A lecture course to investigate the role of genetics in human disease. Through readings, lectures, and discussions we will address how variation in one’s genome can cause monogenic diseases as well as complex conditions such as cancer and diabetes. We will begin with an understanding of the DNA that makes up our genes and then look at physical manifestations that result when gene sequence and function is altered. Not creditable to the Bachelor of Science degree in Biology. (NAT) (Enrollment limited) –Fournier

140. Biological Systems— This course explores the biology of animals (including humans) from standpoints of anatomy, physiology, and evolution. We shall consider basics of cell biology, genetics, development, and structure and function of the major organ systems (e.g., digestive, respiratory, excretory, nervous, endocrine, and reproductive systems). Evolutionary processes that have yielded animal diversity will also be explored. Laboratory activities include anatomical dissection, as well as explorations of microscopy, physiology, behavior, population genetics, and molecular biology. Not creditable to the Bachelor of Science degree in Biology. This course fulfills the biology course requirement for students majoring in psychology and engineering. (NAT) (Enrollment limited) –Blackburn, Dunlap

[141. Global Perspectives on Biodiversity and Conservation]— This lecture and discussion course focuses on the current biodiversity crisis. We will discuss biological diversity and where it is found and how it is monitored, direct and indirect values of biodiversity, and consequences of biodiversity loss. Topics of discussion will also include the problems of small populations, the politics of endangered species, species invasions and extinctions, and the role of humans in these processes, design and establishment of reserves, captive breeding, and the role that the public and governments play in conserving biological diversity. Not creditable to the Bachelor of Science degree in Biology. (GLB3) (Enrollment limited)

[175. Genome Analysis]— Students learn the methods of genome analysis using the phage genome sequenced in the course, FYSM 170, Phage Hunt. Students learn how to use bioinformatics software tools and gene databases to identify genes and regulatory sequences and compare them to known viral genomes. Evolutionary relationships between the new and already know viruses may be determined by comparing amino acid sequences of encoded proteins. New genes can be entered into the public gene databases. Students write up and present their scientific results. Prerequisite: C- or better in First-Year Seminar 170, Phage Hunters, and concurrent enrollment in Biology 183L. (NAT) (Enrollment limited)

183. Cellular Basis of Life— In this introductory level course, we will examine cells as the fundamental unit of life, discussing features common to all cells, and exploring specializations that confer unique properties to different cell types. The laboratory will provide the opportunity to explore biological concepts through observation, experimental design, and analysis. Prerequisite: C- or better in Chemistry 111 or Permission of Instructor (1.25 course credits) (NAT) (Enrollment limited) –Fleming, Foster, Fournier, Guardiola-Diaz, O’Donnell

211. Electron Microscopy— Electron microscopes are sophisticated research instruments that allow examination of specimens at very high magnification (up to 250,000x). Thus, they provide valuable information about cell structure and function and serve as diagnostic tools in human medicine. In this course, students learn how to prepare specimens for electron microscopic study, to use EMs to examine and digitally photograph them, and to interpret the resultant images. The theory behind these techniques will be considered, as will application of electron microscopy to research questions and clinical issues. Prerequisite: C- or better in Biology 182 or Biology 183 and consent of instructor (1.25 course credits) (Enrollment limited) –Blackburn

222. Invertebrate Zoology— An introductory study of the variety, morphology, functional attributes, development, ecology, and evolution of the major groups of invertebrate animals. The laboratory includes demonstrations, dissections, and experimental observation that relate adaptations in structural patterns and physiological processes of organisms to their marine, freshwater, or terrestrial environments. Prerequisite: C- or better in Biology 182L or permission of instructor. (1.25 course credits) (NAT) (Enrollment limited) –Smedley

226. Recombinant DNA Technology— Human gene therapy, genetically-engineered crop plants, and transgenic mice are all possible because of the powerful techniques developed to manipulate nucleic acids and proteins. This course will introduce you to the fundamental methods at the heart of this technology—DNA isolation, restriction digestion, DNA recombination, Southern blotting, and DNA library screening. The emphasis will be on the laboratory experience, with lectures covering current examples of research using the techniques described. Prerequisite: C- or better in Biology 182L and Biology 183L, or Permission of Instructor. (1.25 course credits) (NAT) (Enrollment limited) –Archer

[227. Cell Biology]— A study of cell structure and function, emphasizing molecular components, metabolism, organelles, motility, and growth and division. The molecular biology of cells and the regulation of cellular processes are emphasized. Laboratory exercises will include light microscopy, molecular cellular experiments, and other experiments in cell biology. Prerequisite: C- or better in Biology 182L and Biology 183L, or Permission of Instructor. (1.25 course credits) (NAT) (Enrollment limited)

[233. Conservation Biology]— This lecture and discussion course focuses on the science and theory of this interdisciplinary field. Biological concepts examined include biodiversity and the definition of species, patterns of species vulnerability, population dynamics of small populations, extinctions and invasions, rarity, metapopulations, conservation genetics, reserve design, captive breeding, endangered species, habitat fragmentation, and population recovery programs. Interactions between biology, human concerns regarding resource management, and the political process will also be considered. Prerequisite: C- or better in Biology 182L, or permission of instructor. (NAT) (Enrollment limited)

308. Microbiology— A study of microorganisms that include bacteria, viruses, and eukaryotic microbes. Structure, genetics, metabolism, growth and division, and prokaryotic experimental systems are examined. In addition, mechanisms of microbial pathogenesis, and human and viral pathogens are explored. Laboratory exercises will consist of sterile techniques, culture, microscopy, and identification of bacterial specimens. Other exercises will involve experiments in genetic exchange. Prerequisite: C- or better in Biology 182L and Biology 183L, or Permission of Instructor. (1.25 course credits) (NAT) (Enrollment limited) –Foster

310. Developmental Biology— A study of the developmental processes in animals with emphasis on vertebrates. Modern theories of development are emphasized. Laboratory exercise will include studies of the developmental anatomy of several animals with emphasis on the early embryology of the chick. In addition, experiments dealing with several aspects of animal morphogenesis will be pursued and selected techniques used in experimental studies of animal development will be introduced. Prerequisite: C- or better in Biology 182L or Biology 183L, or permission of instructor. (1.25 course credits) (NAT) (Enrollment limited) –Fleming

[315. Vertebrate Zoology]— A broad-based survey of the biological diversity and evolution of the vertebrates. Special emphasis will be placed on functional morphology, physiology, paleontology, and ecology, as related to evolutionary history. The laboratory will introduce the student to the fundamentals of vertebrate anatomy through the dissection of such animals as the dogfish shark, the cat, and the lamprey. Other lab exercises will deal with functional analysis and reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships. Prerequisite: C- or better in Biology 182 and 183. (1.25 course credits) (NAT) (Enrollment limited)

[319. Animal Physiology]— This course examines the physiological mechanisms underlying four fundamental functions—movement, sensation, feeding, and reproduction. How do physiological systems operate to enable organisms to live in drastically different habitats? What are the common cellular and molecular mechanisms shared by diverse animals? The laboratory will consist of several preparations examining developmental, sensory, endocrine, and muscle physiology, followed by more detailed, independent investigations of one of these preparations. Prerequisite: C- or better in Biology 182L and Biology 183L, or Permission of Instructor. (1.25 course credits) (NAT) (Enrollment limited)

[326L. Marine and Freshwater Botany Lab]— (0.25 course credit) (Enrollment limited)

[336. Marine and Freshwater Botany]— A study of the life histories and environmental strategies of aquatic algae, bryophytes, and vascular plants. The course will highlight the physiological problems and anatomical adaptations associated with life in various fluid environments. Fieldwork in a peat bog, Long Island Sound, and fresh-water environments supplements self-designed research projects on reproductive morphology, growth studies, and physiology of selected aquatic plants. Prerequisite: C- or better in Biology 182L. Biology 215L is recommended. (1.25 course credits) (NAT) (Enrollment limited)

399. Independent Study— Independent research supervised by a faculty member in an area of the student’s special interests. Submission of the special registration form, available in the Registrar’s Office, and the approval of the instructor are required for enrollment. (0.5 - 1 course credit) –Staff

404. Research Seminar— Students engaged in laboratory research, as well as honor candidates conducting library research, will meet with the biology faculty for oral presentations and critical discussions of journal papers, research plans, and research progress. Concurrent enrollment in either Biology 419 or 425 is required. This course is open only to senior Biology majors (0.5 course credit) (NAT) (Enrollment limited) –Dunlap

419. Research in Biology (Library)— Students will conduct library research projects under the direction of an individual faculty member. Students electing this type of independent study should plan on a full semester culminating with the completion of a final formal paper. Seniors and those using library research to satisfy the Group IV requirement must simultaneously enroll in the Research Seminar (Biology 404). Submission of the special registration form, available in the Registrar’s Office, and the approval of the instructor are required for enrollment. (0.5 course credit) (NAT) –Staff

425. Research in Biology (Laboratory)— Students will conduct original laboratory research projects under the direction of an individual faculty member. Students electing to pursue independent study of this type should plan on initiating work no later than the fall of the senior year, and should also plan on no less than two semesters of study with a final formal report to be submitted to the department, as well as a poster at the annual Science Symposium. Seniors and those using laboratory research to satisfy the Group IV requirement must simultaneously enroll in the Research Seminar (Biology 403). Submission of the special registration form, available in the Registrar’s Office, and the approval of the instructor are required for enrollment. (0.5 course credit) (NAT) –Staff

[463. Ecological Concepts and Methods]— This advanced course utilizes lectures and student-led seminars to explore a variety of ecological topics, ranging from the level of the individual organism to the biosphere. Readings are drawn predominantly from the primary literature. Laboratories, mostly field-based, introduce methodology and emphasize the design of observational and experimental studies. There will likely be one or two mandatory weekend-long lab sessions at a field station. With special permission, the course may be taken without the prerequisite. Prerequisite: C- or better in Biology 333L or Biology 222L, or Permission of Instructor. (WEB) (Enrollment limited)

[464. Molecular Genetics]— An examination of the current molecular explanations of the structure, maintenance, control, and expression of genes in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Biology 227L is recommended. Prerequisite: C- or better in Biology 224 (WEB) (Enrollment limited)

466. Teaching Assistantship— Students who have been invited to serve as teaching assistants will register for this course. Submission of the special registration form, available in the Registrar’s Office, and the approval of the instructor are required for enrollment. See paragraph on teaching assistants in the description of the major. Not creditable to the major. (0.5 course credit) –Staff

473. Sensory Biology— This integrative course examines the cell biology, development, physiology and ecology of the senses (vision, audition, olfaction, taste and touch). We will discuss the complex ways humans gather, filter and process sensory information; and how animals sense the world quite differently. Prerequisite: C- or better in Biology 182, and Biology 183L, and Biology 319L or Neuroscience 201, or permission of instructor. (1 - 1.25 course credits) (WEB) (Enrollment limited) –Dunlap

[490. Research Assistantship]— (0.5 course credit)

497. Honors Thesis— An extended paper on the subject of the student’s two-semester research project with a professor in biology, to be read by three or more members of the department. This course is open only to those biology majors who wish to qualify for honors (see paragraph on Honors in Biology in the description of the major). Simultaneous enrollment in Biology 419 or 425 and 404, submission of the special registration form available in the Registrar’s Office, and approval of the instructor and chair are required for enrollment. Prerequisite: Concurrent enrollment in Biology 419 or Biology 425 and Biology 404. (0.5 course credit) (WEB) –Staff

Courses Originating in Other Departments

[Neuroscience 101. The Brain]— View course description in department listing on p. 706.

Neuroscience 201. Principles of Neuroscience— View course description in department listing on p. 706. Prerequisite: C- or better in Biology 182 and 183. –Church, Swart

Neuroscience 201L. Principles of Neuroscience Laboratory— View course description in department listing on p. 706. Prerequisite: C- or better in Biology 183L or permission of instructor. –Swart

Neuroscience 402. Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology— View course description in department listing on p. 707. Prerequisite: C- or better in Neuroscience 201, Biology 317L, or permission of instructor. –Guardiola-Diaz