SATURDAY MAY 30, 1998
8:45 a.m. -- REGISTRATION
Informal gathering; coffee
Come put your posters in Room 134, down the hall from the lobby and auditorium.
9:20 a.m. -- Welcome and introduction to the meeting
9:30 a.m. -- 10:15 a.m.
How to bridge the gap between affordances and conventional uses of objects: Longitudinal infant studies
Cintia Rodriguez and Seth Surgan
This presentation discusses the utility and limitations of the concept of affordance when considering the development of prelinguistic babies in their interaction with objects. The uses to which objects are put in everyday life and the conventions related to them necessitate a reconsideration of the concept of affordance. Videotapes from a pair of longitudinal studies of infants from 7-18 months of age will be shown.
10:15 -- 10:45 a.m. -- BREAK
10:45 - 11:30 a.m.
Open discussion of the role and future direction of developmental studies in ecological psychology
11:30 -- 1:30
Poster viewing and LUNCH -- catered on site
1:30 -- 2:00 p.m.
Lower Extremity Coordination of Walking and Running within the Gait Transition Region
Li Li and Richard van Emmerik
Department of Exercise Science
University of Massachusetts
Amherst, MA 01003
Differences between walking and running have been studied for centuries from different perspectives. In all the different comparisons between walking and running, very little is known about the basic coordinative differences between these patterns independent of running speed. It is often not clear, even within one study, to what degree differences found between walking and running are the result of the different gaits or due to locomotor speed. Employing continuous relative phase between thigh and shank, and the variability of this relative phase, we studied the coordination of walking and running within the gait transition region. Subjects (N=14) were either walking or running on a treadmill with seven different pairs of velocities (1.34, 1.52, 1.70, 1.88, 2.06, 2.23 and 2.41 m×s-1) for both gaits. Relative phase was calculated from the phase angles of thigh and shank phase plots. Variability of relative phase was assessed on the basis of the between trial standard deviation in relative phase. Results indicate overall topological similarity in relative phase patterns between walking and running. However, these similar topologies, occurred throughout different functional phases (stance versus swing) during the gait cycle. Larger variability of relative phase was observed in running than in walking throughout the gait transition region. However, running variability systematically decreased and walking variability systematically increased with velocity in the transition region. These variability results support earlier data from Diedrich and Warren (1995). It is concluded that, controlled for locomotory speed, differences between both patterns of bipedal locomotion exist. The relative phase data also question the use of discrete relative phase to assess differences between walking and running.
2:00 -- 2:30
A comparative analysis of visually induced motion sickness
L. James Smart, Jr.
University of Cincinnati
Motion sickness has been a problem for travelers and military personnel for quite some time. Fortunately, improvements in vehicle technology and design have all but negated the occurrence of sickness in the physical environment. However, sickness has become much more common in the recent advent of virtual technologies. Unlike vehicular sickness, sickness produced by virtual environments (VE), commonly referred to, as visually induced motion sickness (VIMS) is not alleviated by improvements in technology. In fact, sickness tends to occur more often with improved VE technology. The occurrence of sickness is problematic for many reasons and has resulted in a resurgence of the study of motion sickness (or cybersickness as it is often referred to; cf. Kolasinski, et. al., 1995). A recent theory of motion sickness developed by Riccio & Stoffregen (1991) asserts that sickness in real and virtual situations can be attributed to disruptions in postural control (stability) caused by incompatibilities between the person and a given environment. It is this instability that is believed to lead to the occurrence of sickness. However, stability is a relative term and thus it has been difficult to determine what constitutes its loss. An initial empirical test of the postural instability theory has demonstrated that reports of motion sickness are preceded by gross disruptions in postural control (Stoffregen & Smart, 1998).
2:30 -- 3:00 DISCUSSION
3:00 -- 3:30 BREAK
3:30 -- 4:15
4:15 -- 5:00 DISCUSSION
5:00 -- 6:30 -- Poster Viewing
7:00 p.m. Group Dinner at the Keg, 99 Sisson Ave. Hartford
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